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MEGA POST: The verb TO BE in Spanish | ALL conjugations

MEGA POST: The verb TO BE in Spanish | ALL conjugations

¡Hola, amigas y amigos de SpanishCompadres.com! Welcome to a new article! The verbs “SER” and “ESTAR” (to be) are among the most used verbs in any language. 

Therefore, we have prepared a super post with ALL conjugations for the verb “estar” in Spanish. We have also come up with different example sentences for the conjugations that are actually used in real-life talk, so you can practice vocabulary and pronunciation by reading them out loud.

The verb “to be” in Spanish can be translated as “ser” or “estar”, depending on the context. As a general distinction, the verb “estar” indicates a temporary state of being. For example, in the sentence “Mi esposa está feliz” (My wife is happy) the verb “está” (conjugated form of “estar”) indicates a temporary state, the fact that the subject is happy IN THIS MOMENT. 

The verb “ser” indicates a permanent state of being. For example, in the sentence “Mi esposa es feliz” (My wife is happy), the verb “es” (conjugated form of “ser”) indicates a permanent state, the fact that the subject is ALWAYS happy. 

Let’s check out all the conjugations of the verb “to be” in Spanish.

 

Table of contents

    

What does estar mean in Spanish?

As we explained in the introduction, “estar” is one of the meanings of the verb “to be” in Spanish. “To be” can be translated as “ser” or “estar”. The difference between “ser” and “estar” is that “ser” describes a permanent state of being (e.g. El pan es caro / Bread is expensive / Bread is ALWAYS expensive), whereas “estar” describes a temporary state of being (e.g. El pan está caro / Bread is expensive / Bread is expensive RIGHT NOW). 

 

Verb ESTAR conjugation

 

Non-conjugated forms

Infinitive estar
Gerund estando
Participle estado

 

INDICATIVE MOOD

 

Presente   Examples
Yo estoy I am (Yo) Estoy en el supermercado (I’m at the supermarket)
Tú estás You are Tú estás esperando un milagro (You are waiting for a miracle)
Él está He is Ella está enojada (She’s angry)
Nosotros estamos We are Nosotros estamos bien (We are fine)
Vosotros estáis You are Ustedes no están en peligro (You are not in danger)
Ellos están They are Ellos están en el café (They are in the café)

 

Pretérito imperfecto   Examples
Yo estaba I was Yo estaba pensando en ti (I was thinking about you)
Tú estabas You were Tú estabas como loco (You were like crazy)
Él estaba He was Él no estaba donde dijo (He wasn’t where he said he was)
Nosotros estábamos We were Nosotros estábamos almorzando (We were having lunch)
Vosotros estábais / Ustedes estaban You were Vosotros estábais / Ustedes estaban tomando té (You were having tea)
Ellos estaban They were Ellos estaban trabajando (They were working)

 

Pretérito perfecto simple   Examples
Yo estuve I was Yo estuve molesto, pero se me pasó (I was upset, but I got over it)
Tú estuviste You were Tú estuviste dormida por diez horas (You were asleep for ten hours)
Él estuvo He was Ella estuvo aquí ayer (She was here yesterday)
Nosotros estuvimos We were Nosotros estuvimos en esa clase (We were in that class)
Vosotros estuvisteis / Ustedes estuvieron You were Vosotros estuvisteis / Ustedes estuvieron detenidos (You were detained)
Ellos estuvieron They were Ellos estuvieron coludidos (They were colluded)

 

Futuro   Examples
Yo estaré I will be Yo no estaré aquí cuando vuelvas (I won’t be here when you get back)
Tú estarás You will be Tú estarás en España cuando leas esto (You will be in Spain when you read this)
Él estará He will be Él estará contento después de la sorpresa (He will be happy after the surprise)
Nosotros estaremos We will be Nosotros estaremos contando los días (We’ll be counting the days)
Vosotros estaráis / Ustedes estarán You will be Vosotros estaráis / Ustedes estarán con nosotros mañana (You will be with us tomorrow)
Ellos estarán They will be Ellos estarán dentro de los clasificados (They will be among the classified ones)

 

Condicional   Examples
Yo estaría I would be Yo estaría más contento si fueses más amable (I would be happier if you were nicer)
Tú estarías You would be Tú estarías conmigo si tuviese más dinero (You would be with me if I had more money)
Él estaría He would be Ella no estaría resfriada si se hubiese cuidado (She wouldn’t have a cold if she had taken care of herself)
Nosotros estaríamos We would be Nosotros ya estaríamos allá si hubiésemos tomado el avión antes (We would already be there if we had taken an earlier flight)
Vosotros estaríais / Ustedes estarían You would be Vosotros estaríais / Ustedes estarían mejor allá (You would be better there)
Ellos estarían They would be Ellas estarían desmotivadas si no fuesen tan fuertes (They would be demotivated if they weren’t so strong)

 

Pretérito perfecto compuesto   Examples
Yo he estado I have been Yo he estado peor (I have been worse)
Tú has estado You have been Tú no has estado disponible por varios días (You haven’t been available for several days)
Él ha estado He has been Él no ha estado preocupado de ese asunto (He hasn’t been worried about that issue)
Nosotros hemos estado We have been Nosotros hemos estado aquí desde las cuatro (We have been here since 4 pm)
Vosotros habéis / Ustedes han estado You have been Ustedes han estado con nosotros desde el comienzo (You have been with us since the beginning)
Ellos han estado They have been Ellas han estado en Argentina tres veces (They have been in Argentina three times)

 

Pretérito pluscuamperfecto   Examples
Yo había estado I had been Yo había estado aquí hace años (I had been here years ago)
Tú habías estado You had seen Tú habías estado trabajando conmigo desde pequeño (You had been working with me since you were little)
Él había estado He has been Él había salido cuando llegué a la oficina (He had left when I got to the office)
Nosotros habíamos estado We had been Nosotros no habíamos estado bien hasta que llegaste (We hadn’t been well until you arrived)
Vosotros habíais / Ustedes habían estado You had been Ustedes habían estado muy ocupados antes de tomarse vacaciones (You had been too busy before taking a vacation)
Ellos habían estado They had been Ellas habían estado en España dos veces antes (They had been in Spain twice before)

 

Pretérito anterior   Examples
Yo hube estado I had been NOTE: this conjugation is rarely used in everyday, real-life Spanish. It would make you sound awkward in a social situation.
Tú hubiste estado You had seen
Él hubo estado He has been
Nosotros hubimos estado We had been
Vosotros hubisteis / Ustedes hubieron estado You had been
Ellos hubieron estado They had been

 

Futuro perfecto   Examples
Yo habré estado I will have been Cuando sean las seis, ya habré estado en camino (By six, I will have been on my way)
Tú habrás estado You will have been Para la próxima semana, ya habrás estado en dos ciudades de Chile (By next week, you will have been in two cities in Chile)
Él habrá estado He will have been Él habrá estado en su oficina dos veces para ese entonces (He will have been in his office twice by then)
Nosotros habremos estado We will have been Nosotros habremos estado de visita tres veces para entonces (We will have visited three times by then)
Vosotros habréis / Ustedes habrán estado You will have been Ustedes ya habrán estado aquí cuando él venga (You will have already been here when he comes)
Ellos habrán estado They will have been Ellas ya habrán estado en su dormitorio cuando llegue su prima (They will already have been in her bedroom when their cousin arrives)

 

Condicional perfecto   Examples
Yo habría estado I would have been Yo habría estado fuera de aquí (I would have been out of here)
Tú habrías estado You would have been Tú habrías estado sola si no fuera por él (You would have been alone if it weren’t for him)
Él habría estado He would have been Él habría estado triste de no ser por ti (He would have been sad if it wasn’t for you)
Nosotros habríamos estado We would have been Nosotros habríamos estados preocupados si hubiese pasado algo (We would have been worried if something had happened)
Vosotros habríais / Ustedes habrían estado You would have been Ustedes habrían estado en peligro de no ser por la policía (You would have been in danger if it weren’t for the police)
Ellos habrían estado They would have been Ellos habrían estado en los EEUU si no hubiesen viajado (They would have been in the USA if they hadn’t traveled)

 

SUBJUNCTIVE MOOD

 

Presente   Examples
(que) yo esté I am No creo que yo esté bien considerado ahí (I don’t think I am wel regarded there)
(que) tú estés You are Ojalá que tú estés mejor para esa fecha (I wish you are better by that time)
(que) él esté He is Deseo que él esté en mi fiesta de cumpleaños (I wish he is at my birthday party)
(que) nosotros estemos We are No creo que nosotros estemos listos (I don’t think we are ready)
(que) vosotros estéis / ustedes estén You are Ojalá que ustedes estén contentos (I wish you are happy)
(que) ellos estén They are Oremos para que ellos estén bien (Let’s pray they are OK)

 

Pretérito imperfecto / pretérito   Examples
(que) yo estuviera o estuviese I were Si yo estuviera solo, me sacaría los zapatos (If I were alone, I’d take my shoes off)
(que) tú estuvieras o estuvieses You were Si tú estuvieras soltera, tendrías muchos pretendientes (If you were single, you would have many pretenders)
(que) él estuviera o estuviese He were Si ella estuviese en problemas, nos habría llamado (If she were in trouble, she would have called)
(que) nosotros estuviéramos o estuviésemos We were Si nosotros estuviéramos más preparados, pasaríamos la prueba fácilmente (If we were more prepared, we would pass the test easily)
(que) vosotros estuvierais o estuvieseis / ustedes estuvieran o estuviesen You were Si ustedes estuvieran despiertos a esa hora, podríamos juntarnos (If you were awake at that time, we could get together)
(que) ellos estuvieran o estuviesen They were Si ellas estuvieran en la ciudad, podríamos ir al cine (If they were in the city, we could go to the cinema)

 

Futuro simple / futuro   Examples
(que) yo estuviere   NOTE: this conjugation is rarely used in everyday, real-life Spanish. It would make you sound awkward in a social situation.
(que) tú estuvieres  
(que) él estuviere  
(que) nosotros estuviéremos  
(que) vosotros estuviereis / ustedes estuvieren  
(que) ellos estuvieren  

 

Pretérito perfecto   Examples
(que) yo haya estado I was No creo que yo haya estado en mi mejor momento (I don’t think I was at my prime)
(que) tú hayas estado You were Puede que tú hayas estado en esa fiesta (Maybe you were at that party)
(que) él haya estado He was No creo que ella haya estado hablando en serio (I don’t think she was talking seriously)
(que) nosotros hayamos estado We were No creo que nosotros hayamos estado pasándolo mal (I don’t think we were having a bad time)
(que) vosotros hayáis estado / ustedes hayan You were Puede que ustedes hayan estado un poco ebrios (Maybe you were a little drunk)
(que) ellos hayan estado They were Puede que ellos hayan estado bromeando (Maybe they were joking)

 

Pretérito pluscuamperfecto   Examples
(que) yo hubiera / hubiese estado I had been Ojalá yo hubiera estado ahí para verte (I wish I had been there to see you)
(que) tú hubieras / hubieses estado You had been Ojalá tú hubieras estado en mi lugar (I wish you had been in place)
(que) él hubiera / hubiese estado He had been Ojalá que él hubiera estado en su trabajo más temprano (I wish he had been at work earlier)
(que) nosotros hubiéramos / hubiésemos estado We had been Ojalá que nosotros hubiéramos estado más comprometidos (I wish we had been more committed)
(que) vosotros hubierais o hubieseis / ustedes hubieran o hubiesen estado You had been Ojalá que ustedes hubieran estado en mejores condiciones (I wish you had been in better condition)
(que) ellos hubieran / hubiesen estado They had been Ojalá que ellas hubieran estado aquí antes (I wish they had been here earlier)

 

Futuro perfecto   Examples
(que) yo hubiere estado   NOTE: this conjugation is rarely used in everyday, real-life Spanish. It would make you sound awkward in a social situation.
(que) tú hubieres estado  
(que) él hubiere estado  
(que) nosotros hubiéremos estado  
(que) vosotros hubiereis / ustedes hubieren estado  
(que) ellos hubieren estado  

 

IMPERATIVE MOOD

 

(Tú) está(te) Be ¡Estáte quieto, por favor! (Be still, please!)
(Ustedes) estad / estén Be Estén alertas (Be alert)

 

What does ser mean in Spanish?

As we explained in the introduction, “ser” is one of the meanings of the verb “to be” in Spanish. “To be” can be translated as “ser” or “estar”. The difference between “ser” and “estar” is that “ser” describes a permanent state of being (e.g. La joven es bonita / The young girl is pretty / The young girl ALWAYS looks pretty), whereas “estar” describes a temporary state of being (e.g. La joven está bonita / The young girl is pretty / The young girl looks pretty NOW). 

 

Verb SER conjugation

 

Non-conjugated forms

Infinitive ser
Gerund siendo
Participle sido

 

Indicative mood 

 

Presente   Examples
Yo soy I am Yo soy Juan (I am Juan)
Tú eres You are ¿Tú eres María? (Are you María?)
Él es He is Él es mi cuñado (He is my brother in law)
Nosotros somos We are Nosotros somos los dueños (We are the owners)
Vosotros sois You are Vosotros sois nuestros amigos (You are our friends)
Ellos son They are Ellas son mis hijas (They are my daughters)

 

Pretérito imperfecto   Examples
Yo era I was / used to be Yo era un buen estudiante (I was / used to be a good student)
Tú eras You were / used to be Tú no eras así antes (You were not / didn’t use to be like this before)
Él era He was / used to be Ella era la mejor de su clase (She was / used to be the best in her class)
Nosotros éramos We were / used to be Nosotros éramos amigos (We were / used to be friends)
Vosotros erais You were / used to be Vosotros erais del otro equipo (You were / used to be on the other team)
Ellos eran They were / used to be Ellas eran simpáticas (They were / used to be nice)

 

Pretérito perfecto simple   Examples
Yo fui I was Yo fui el que les contó (I was the one who told them)
Tú fuiste You were Tú fuiste el primero (You were the first one)
Él fue He was Ella fue la primera en llegar (She was the first to arrive)
Nosotros fuimos We were Nosotros no fuimos los culpables (We weren’t the guilty ones)
Vosotros fuisteis You were Vosotros fuistes sobresalientes esa vez (You were outstanding that time)
Ellos fueron They were Ellos fueron malos con nosotros (They were mean to us)

 

Futuro   Examples
Yo seré I will be Yo seré padre en Enero (I will be a father in January)
Tú serás You will be Tú serás mi padrino de boda (You will be my best man)
Él será He will be Él será un arquitecto (He will be an architect)
Nosotros seremos We will be Nosotros seremos amigos (We will be friends)
Vosotros seréis You will be Vosotros seréis nuestros huéspedes (You will be our guests)
Ellos serán They will be Ellas serán las protagonistas (They will be the protagonists)

 

Condicional   Examples
Yo sería I would be Yo sería mejor si entrenara más duro (I would be better if I trained harder)
Tú serías You would be Tú serías mi compañero si hubiésemos entrado a la misma universidad (You would be my classmate if we had entered the same university)
Él sería He would be Él sería más delgado si comiera menos (He would be thinner if he ate less)
Nosotros seríamos We would be Nosotros seríamos millonarios si trabajáramos más (We would be millionaire if we worked more)
Vosotros seríais You would be Vosotros serías más eficientes si hicierais esto (You would be more efficient if you did this)
Ellos serían They would be Ellos serían más energéticos si practicaran deportes (They would be more energetic if the practiced sports)

 

Pretérito perfecto compuesto   Examples
Yo he sido I have been Yo he sido tu amigo por años (I’ve been your friend for years)
Tú has sido You have been Tú has sido mejor de lo que esperaba (You’ve been better than I expected)
Él ha sido He has been Él ha sido nuestro mejor profesor hasta ahora (He has been our best teacher so far)
Nosotros hemos sido We have been Nosotros hemos sido padres estrictos (we have been strict parents)
Vosotros habéis sido You have been Vosotros habéis sido muy amables (You have been very kind)
Ellos han sido They have been Ellas han sido nuestras clientas por años (They have been our clients for years)

 

Pretérito pluscuamperfecto   Examples
Yo había sido I had been Antes de ser tu amigo, yo había sido tu mentor (Before I was your friend, I had been your mentor)
Tú habías sido You had seen Tú ya habías sido alertada cuando intenté llamarte (You had already been alerted when I tried to call you)
Él había sido He has been Él había sido una influencia para mí hasta que me enteré de lo que pasó (He had been an influencer for me until I found out what happened)
Nosotros habíamos sido We had been Cuando ustedes nos llamaron, nosotros ya habíamos sido invitados (When you called us, we had already been invited)
Vosotros habíais sido You had been Vosotros habías sido arrestados antes de esto (You had been arrested before this)
Ellos habían sido They had been Ellos habían sido los únicos campeones invictos hasta que el otro equipo ganó (They had been the only undefeated champions until the other team won)

 

Pretérito anterior   Examples
Yo hube sido I had been NOTE: this conjugation is rarely used in everyday, real-life Spanish. It would make you sound awkward in a social situation.
Tú hubiste sido You had seen
Él hubo sido He has been
Nosotros hubimos sido We had been
Vosotros hubisteis sido You had been
Ellos hubieron sido They had been

 

Futuro perfecto   Examples
Yo habré sido I will have been Si en dos años ganamos el campeonato, yo habré sido parte de ese triunfo. (If we win the championship in two years’ time, I will have been part of that triumph.
Tú habrás sido You will have been Para ese entonces, tú habrás sido muy exitosa (By then, you will have been very successful)
Él habrá sido He will have been Cuando suceda eso, él ya habrá sido desalojado (When that happens, he will have already been evicted)
Nosotros habremos sido We will have been Nosotros habremos sido notificados para ese entonces (We will have been notified by then)
Vosotros habréis sido You will have been Cuando la nueva era llegue, habréis sido preparados para triunfar en ella (When the new era arrives, you will have been prepared to succeed in it)
Ellos habrán sido They will have been Ellas habrán sido electas para esa fecha (They will have been elected by that time)

 

Condicional perfecto   Examples
Yo habría sido I would have been Si no hubiese estudiado leyes, yo habría sido actor (If I hadn’t studied law, I would have been an actor)
Tú habrías sido You would have been Tú habrías sido el candidato perfecto (You would have been the perfect candidate)
Él habría sido He would have been Ella habría sido feliz si hubiese estudiado en la universidad (She would have been happy if she had studied at the university)
Nosotros habríamos sido We would have been Nosotros no habríamos sido futbolistas si no hubiésemos entrenado desde niños (We wouldn’t have been footballers if we hadn’t trained since little)
Vosotros habríais sido You would have been Vosotros habríais sido mejores si os hubieseis preparado (You would have been better if you had prepared yourselves)
Ellos habrían sido They would have been Ellas habrían sido perjudicadas si no se hubiese conocido la verdad (They would have been affected if the truth hadn’t been known)

 

SUBJUNCTIVE MOOD

 

Presente   Examples
(que) yo sea I am Ojalá que yo sea el elegido (I wish I am the chosen one)
(que) tú seas You are Ojalá que tú seas capaz de hacerlo (I wish you are able to do it)
(que) él sea He is Ojalá que él sea recompensado (I wish he is rewarded)
(que) nosotros seamos We are Ojalá que nosotros seamos escuchados (I wish we are heard)
(que) vosotros seáis You are Ojalá que vosotros seáis bien recibidos (I wish you are welcomed)
(que) ellos sean They are Ojalá que ellas sean las ganadoras (I wish they are the winners)

 

Pretérito imperfecto / pretérito   Examples
(que) yo fuera o fuese I were Ojalá que yo fuera como él (I wish I were like him)
(que) tú fueras o fueses You were Esperaba que tú fueras diferente (I hoped you were different)
(que) él fuera o fuese He were Si él no fuese así, estaríamos mejor (If he weren’t like that, we would be better off)
(que) nosotros fuéramos o fuésemos We were Ojalá fuéramos más afortunados (I wish we were luckier)
(que) vosotros fuerais o fueseis You were Si fuerais más discretos, podríamos llevarnos mejor (If you were more discreet, we could get along better)
(que) ellos fueran o fuesen They were Si ellas fueran más relajadas, su trabajo no sería tan bueno (If they were more relaxed, their work wouldn’t be as good)

 

Futuro simple / futuro   Examples
(que) yo fuere   NOTE: this conjugation is rarely used in everyday, real-life Spanish. It would make you sound awkward in a social situation.
(que) tú fueres  
(que) él fuere  
(que) nosotros fuéremos  
(que) vosotros fuereis  
(que) ellos fueren  

 

Pretérito perfecto   Examples
(que) yo haya sido I was Espero que yo haya sido de tu agrado (I hope I was of your liking)
(que) tú hayas sido You were Es genial que tú hayas sido elegido (It’s great that you were elected)
(que) él haya sido He was Espero que él haya sido un buen niño (I hope he was a good boy)
(que) nosotros hayamos sido We were ¿Crees que nosotros hayamos sido lo suficientemente buenos? Do you think we were good enough?
(que) vosotros hayáis sido You were Espero que vosotros hayáis sido tratados como os merecéis (I wish you were treated as you deserve)
(que) ellos hayan sido They were ¿Crees que ellos hayan sido culpables? Do you think they were guilty?

 

Pretérito pluscuamperfecto   Examples
(que) yo hubiera / hubiese sido I had been Si yo hubiera sido más cuidadoso, esto no habría sucedido (If I had been more careful, this wouldn’t have happened)
(que) tú hubieras / hubieses sido You had been Si tú hubieras sido más atento, tu novia no te habría dejado (If you had been more attentive, your girlfriend wouldn’t have left you)
(que) él hubiera / hubiese sido He had been Él habría sido un abogado si hubiese sido más perserverante (He would have been a lawyer if he had been more persevering)
(que) nosotros hubiéramos / hubiésemos sido We had been Si nosotros hubiésemos sido hermanos, no nos habríamos llevado bien (If we had been brothers, we wouldn’t have gotten along)
(que) vosotros hubierais / hubieseis sido You had been Si vosotros hubiérais sido así desde el principio, no habría habido ningún problema (If you had been like this since the beginning, there wouldn’t have been any problems)
(que) ellos hubieran / hubiesen sido They had been Si ellos hubiesen sido más cuidadosos, estarían a salvo ahora (If they had been more careful, they would be safe now)

 

Futuro perfecto   Examples
(que) yo hubiere sido   NOTE: this conjugation is rarely used in everyday, real-life Spanish. It would make you sound awkward in a social situation.
(que) tú hubieres sido  
(que) él hubiere sido  
(que) nosotros hubiéremos sido  
(que) vosotros hubiereis sido  
(que) ellos hubieren sido  

 

IMPERATIVE MOOD

 

(Tú) sé Be Sé una buena niña (Be a good girl)
(Usted) sea Be Sea amable (Be nice)
(Vosotros) sed Be Sed obedientes con sus padres (Be obedient to your parents)
(Ustedes) sean Be Sean disciplinados (Be disciplined)

 

Conclusion

The verb “estar” is one of the meanings of the verb “to be” in Spanish. “To be” can be translated as “ser” or “estar”. 

The verb “ser” is another meaning of the verb “to be” in Spanish. “To be” can be translated as “ser” or “estar”. 

The difference between “ser” and “estar” is that “ser” describes a permanent state of being, whereas “estar” describes a temporary state of being. Knowing how to conjugate this high frequency verb will help you take your Spanish to the next level.

 

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Conjugate ESTAR in Spanish | ALL conjugations

¡Hola, amigas y amigos de SpanishCompadres.com! Welcome to a new article! The verb “ESTAR” (to be, temporary) is one of the most used verbs in any language. Spanish is also the case. Therefore, we have prepared a super post with ALL conjugations for the verb “estar” in Spanish. We have also come up with example sentences for each conjugation, so you can practice vocabulary and pronunciation by reading them out loud.

The verb “to be” in Spanish can be translated as “ser” or “estar”, depending on the context. As a general distinction, the verb “estar” indicates a temporary state of being. For example, in the sentence “Mi esposa está feliz” (My wife is happy) the verb “está” (conjugated form of “estar”) indicates a temporary state, the fact that the subject is happy IN THIS MOMENT. 

The verb “ser” indicates a permanent state of being. For example, in the sentence “Mi esposa es feliz” (My wife is happy), the verb “es” (conjugated form of “ser”) indicates a permanent state, the fact that the subject is ALWAYS happy. 

Let’s check out all the conjugations of the verb “estar”.    

 

Table of contents

 

What does estar mean in Spanish?

As we explained in the introduction, “estar” is one of the meanings of the verb “to be” in Spanish. “To be” can be translated as “ser” or “estar”. The difference between “ser” and “estar” is that “ser” describes a permanent state of being (e.g. El pan es caro / Bread is expensive / Bread is ALWAYS expensive), whereas “estar” describes a temporary state of being (e.g. El pan está caro / Bread is expensive / Bread is expensive RIGHT NOW). 

 

Verb ESTAR conjugation

 

Non-conjugated forms

Infinitive estar
Gerund estando
Participle estado

 

INDICATIVE MOOD

 

Presente Examples
Yo estoy I am (Yo) Estoy en el supermercado (I’m at the supermarket)
Tú estás You are Tú estás esperando un milagro (You are waiting for a miracle)
Él está He is Ella está enojada (She’s angry)
Nosotros estamos We are Nosotros estamos bien (We are fine)
Vosotros estáis You are Ustedes no están en peligro (You are not in danger)
Ellos están They are Ellos están en el café (They are in the café)

 

Pretérito imperfecto Examples
Yo estaba I was Yo estaba pensando en ti (I was thinking about you)
Tú estabas You were Tú estabas como loco (You were like crazy)
Él estaba He was Él no estaba donde dijo (He wasn’t where he said he was)
Nosotros estábamos We were Nosotros estábamos almorzando (We were having lunch)
Vosotros estábais / Ustedes estaban You were Vosotros estábais / Ustedes estaban tomando té (You were having tea)
Ellos estaban They were Ellos estaban trabajando (They were working)

 

Pretérito perfecto simple Examples
Yo estuve I was Yo estuve molesto, pero se me pasó (I was upset, but I got over it)
Tú estuviste You were Tú estuviste dormida por diez horas (You were asleep for ten hours)
Él estuvo He was Ella estuvo aquí ayer (She was here yesterday)
Nosotros estuvimos We were Nosotros estuvimos en esa clase (We were in that class)
Vosotros estuvisteis / Ustedes estuvieron You were Vosotros estuvisteis / Ustedes estuvieron detenidos (You were detained)
Ellos estuvieron They were Ellos estuvieron coludidos (They were colluded)

 

Futuro Examples
Yo estaré I will be Yo no estaré aquí cuando vuelvas (I won’t be here when you get back)
Tú estarás You will be Tú estarás en España cuando leas esto (You will be in Spain when you read this)
Él estará He will be Él estará contento después de la sorpresa (He will be happy after the surprise)
Nosotros estaremos We will be Nosotros estaremos contando los días (We’ll be counting the days)
Vosotros estaráis / Ustedes estarán You will be Vosotros estaráis / Ustedes estarán con nosotros mañana (You will be with us tomorrow)
Ellos estarán They will be Ellos estarán dentro de los clasificados (They will be among the classified ones)

 

Condicional Examples
Yo estaría I would be Yo estaría más contento si fueses más amable (I would be happier if you were nicer)
Tú estarías You would be Tú estarías conmigo si tuviese más dinero (You would be with me if I had more money)
Él estaría He would be Ella no estaría resfriada si se hubiese cuidado (She wouldn’t have a cold if she had taken care of herself)
Nosotros estaríamos We would be Nosotros ya estaríamos allá si hubiésemos tomado el avión antes (We would already be there if we had taken an earlier flight)
Vosotros estaríais / Ustedes estarían You would be Vosotros estaríais / Ustedes estarían mejor allá (You would be better there)
Ellos estarían They would be Ellas estarían desmotivadas si no fuesen tan fuertes (They would be demotivated if they weren’t so strong)

 

Pretérito perfecto compuesto Examples
Yo he estado I have been Yo he estado peor (I have been worse)
Tú has estado You have been Tú no has estado disponible por varios días (You haven’t been available for several days)
Él ha estado He has been Él no ha estado preocupado de ese asunto (He hasn’t been worried about that issue)
Nosotros hemos estado We have been Nosotros hemos estado aquí desde las cuatro (We have been here since 4 pm)
Vosotros habéis / Ustedes han estado You have been Ustedes han estado con nosotros desde el comienzo (You have been with us since the beginning)
Ellos han estado They have been Ellas han estado en Argentina tres veces (They have been in Argentina three times)

 

Pretérito pluscuamperfecto Examples
Yo había estado I had been Yo había estado aquí hace años (I had been here years ago)
Tú habías estado You had seen Tú habías estado trabajando conmigo desde pequeño (You had been working with me since you were little)
Él había estado He has been Él había salido cuando llegué a la oficina (He had left when I got to the office)
Nosotros habíamos estado We had been Nosotros no habíamos estado bien hasta que llegaste (We hadn’t been well until you arrived)
Vosotros habíais / Ustedes habían estado You had been Ustedes habían estado muy ocupados antes de tomarse vacaciones (You had been too busy before taking a vacation)
Ellos habían estado They had been Ellas habían estado en España dos veces antes (They had been in Spain twice before)

 

Pretérito anterior Examples
Yo hube estado I had been NOTE: this conjugation is rarely used in everyday, real-life Spanish. It would make you sound awkward in a social situation.
Tú hubiste estado You had seen
Él hubo estado He has been
Nosotros hubimos estado We had been
Vosotros hubisteis / Ustedes hubieron estado You had been
Ellos hubieron estado They had been

 

Futuro perfecto Examples
Yo habré estado I will have been Cuando sean las seis, ya habré estado en camino (By six, I will have been on my way)
Tú habrás estado You will have been Para la próxima semana, ya habrás estado en dos ciudades de Chile (By next week, you will have been in two cities in Chile)
Él habrá estado He will have been Él habrá estado en su oficina dos veces para ese entonces (He will have been in his office twice by then)
Nosotros habremos estado We will have been Nosotros habremos estado de visita tres veces para entonces (We will have visited three times by then)
Vosotros habréis / Ustedes habrán estado You will have been Ustedes ya habrán estado aquí cuando él venga (You will have already been here when he comes)
Ellos habrán estado They will have been Ellas ya habrán estado en su dormitorio cuando llegue su prima (They will already have been in her bedroom when their cousin arrives)

 

Condicional perfecto Examples
Yo habría estado I would have been Yo habría estado fuera de aquí (I would have been out of here)
Tú habrías estado You would have been Tú habrías estado sola si no fuera por él (You would have been alone if it weren’t for him)
Él habría estado He would have been Él habría estado triste de no ser por ti (He would have been sad if it wasn’t for you)
Nosotros habríamos estado We would have been Nosotros habríamos estados preocupados si hubiese pasado algo (We would have been worried if something had happened)
Vosotros habríais / Ustedes habrían estado You would have been Ustedes habrían estado en peligro de no ser por la policía (You would have been in danger if it weren’t for the police)
Ellos habrían estado They would have been Ellos habrían estado en los EEUU si no hubiesen viajado (They would have been in the USA if they hadn’t traveled)

 

SUBJUNCTIVE MOOD

 

Presente Examples
(que) yo esté I am No creo que yo esté bien considerado ahí (I don’t think I am wel regarded there)
(que) tú estés You are Ojalá que tú estés mejor para esa fecha (I wish you are better by that time)
(que) él esté He is Deseo que él esté en mi fiesta de cumpleaños (I wish he is at my birthday party)
(que) nosotros estemos We are No creo que nosotros estemos listos (I don’t think we are ready)
(que) vosotros estéis / ustedes estén You are Ojalá que ustedes estén contentos (I wish you are happy)
(que) ellos estén They are Oremos para que ellos estén bien (Let’s pray they are OK)

 

Pretérito imperfecto / pretérito Examples
(que) yo estuviera o estuviese I were Si yo estuviera solo, me sacaría los zapatos (If I were alone, I’d take my shoes off)
(que) tú estuvieras o estuvieses You were Si tú estuvieras soltera, tendrías muchos pretendientes (If you were single, you would have many pretenders)
(que) él estuviera o estuviese He were Si ella estuviese en problemas, nos habría llamado (If she were in trouble, she would have called)
(que) nosotros estuviéramos o estuviésemos We were Si nosotros estuviéramos más preparados, pasaríamos la prueba fácilmente (If we were more prepared, we would pass the test easily)
(que) vosotros estuvierais o estuvieseis / ustedes estuvieran o estuviesen You were Si ustedes estuvieran despiertos a esa hora, podríamos juntarnos (If you were awake at that time, we could get together)
(que) ellos estuvieran o estuviesen They were Si ellas estuvieran en la ciudad, podríamos ir al cine (If they were in the city, we could go to the cinema)

 

Futuro simple / futuro Examples
(que) yo estuviere NOTE: this conjugation is rarely used in everyday, real-life Spanish. It would make you sound awkward in a social situation.
(que) tú estuvieres
(que) él estuviere
(que) nosotros estuviéremos
(que) vosotros estuviereis / ustedes estuvieren
(que) ellos estuvieren

 

Pretérito perfecto Examples
(que) yo haya estado I was No creo que yo haya estado en mi mejor momento (I don’t think I was at my prime)
(que) tú hayas estado You were Puede que tú hayas estado en esa fiesta (Maybe you were at that party)
(que) él haya estado He was No creo que ella haya estado hablando en serio (I don’t think she was talking seriously)
(que) nosotros hayamos estado We were No creo que nosotros hayamos estado pasándolo mal (I don’t think we were having a bad time)
(que) vosotros hayáis estado / ustedes hayan You were Puede que ustedes hayan estado un poco ebrios (Maybe you were a little drunk)
(que) ellos hayan estado They were Puede que ellos hayan estado bromeando (Maybe they were joking)

 

Pretérito pluscuamperfecto Examples
(que) yo hubiera / hubiese estado I had been Ojalá yo hubiera estado ahí para verte (I wish I had been there to see you)
(que) tú hubieras / hubieses estado You had been Ojalá tú hubieras estado en mi lugar (I wish you had been in place)
(que) él hubiera / hubiese estado He had been Ojalá que él hubiera estado en su trabajo más temprano (I wish he had been at work earlier)
(que) nosotros hubiéramos / hubiésemos estado We had been Ojalá que nosotros hubiéramos estado más comprometidos (I wish we had been more committed)
(que) vosotros hubierais o hubieseis / ustedes hubieran o hubiesen estado You had been Ojalá que ustedes hubieran estado en mejores condiciones (I wish you had been in better condition)
(que) ellos hubieran / hubiesen estado They had been Ojalá que ellas hubieran estado aquí antes (I wish they had been here earlier)

 

Futuro perfecto Examples
(que) yo hubiere estado NOTE: this conjugation is rarely used in everyday, real-life Spanish. It would make you sound awkward in a social situation.
(que) tú hubieres estado
(que) él hubiere estado
(que) nosotros hubiéremos estado
(que) vosotros hubiereis / ustedes hubieren estado
(que) ellos hubieren estado

 

IMPERATIVE MOOD

 

(Tú) está(te) Be ¡Estáte quieto, por favor! (Be still, please!)
(Ustedes) estad / estén Be Estén alertas (Be alert)

 

Conclusion

The verb “estar” is one of the meanings of the verb “to be” in Spanish. “To be” can be translated as “ser” or “estar”. The difference between “ser” and “estar” is that “ser” describes a permanent state of being, whereas “estar” describes a temporary state of being. Knowing how to conjugate this high frequency verb will help you take your Spanish to the next level.

 

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Conjugate ser in Spanish | ALL conjugations

¡Hola, amigas y amigos de SpanishCompadres.com! Welcome to a new article! The verb “ser” (to be, as in “to exist”) is one of the most frequent verbs in any language. Spanish is not an exception to this rule. For this reason, we have prepared a super post with ALL conjugations for the verb “ser” in all tenses in Spanish. We have also come up with example sentences for each conjugation, so you can practice vocabulary and pronunciation by reading them out loud.

The verb “to be” in Spanish can be translated as “ser” or “estar”, depending on the context. As a general distinction, the verb “ser” indicates a permanent state of being. For example, in the sentence “Mi esposa es feliz” (My wife is happy), the verb “es” (conjugated form of “ser”) indicates a permanent state, the fact that the subject is ALWAYS happy. 

The verb “estar” indicates a temporary state of being. For example, in the sentence “Mi esposa está feliz” (My wife is happy) the verb “está” (conjugated form of “estar”) indicates a temporary state, the fact that the subject is happy IN THIS MOMENT. Let’s check out all the conjugations of the verb “ser”.    

 

Table of contents

 

What does ser mean in Spanish?

As we explained in the introduction, “ser” is one of the meanings of the verb “to be” in Spanish. “To be” can be translated as “ser” or “estar”. The difference between “ser” and “estar” is that “ser” describes a permanent state of being (e.g. La joven es bonita / The young girl is pretty / The young girl ALWAYS looks pretty), whereas “estar” describes a temporary state of being (e.g. La joven está bonita / The young girl is pretty / The young girl looks pretty NOW). 

 

Verb SER conjugation

 

Non-conjugated forms

Infinitive ser
Gerund siendo
Participle sido

 

Indicative mood 

 

Indicative simple tenses

 

Presente   Examples
Yo soy I am Yo soy Juan (I am Juan)
Tú eres You are ¿Tú eres María? (Are you María?)
Él es He is Él es mi cuñado (He is my brother in law)
Nosotros somos We are Nosotros somos los dueños (We are the owners)
Vosotros sois You are Vosotros sois nuestros amigos (You are our friends)
Ellos son They are Ellas son mis hijas (They are my daughters)

 

Pretérito imperfecto   Examples
Yo era I was / used to be Yo era un buen estudiante (I was / used to be a good student)
Tú eras You were / used to be Tú no eras así antes (You were not / didn’t use to be like this before)
Él era He was / used to be Ella era la mejor de su clase (She was / used to be the best in her class)
Nosotros éramos We were / used to be Nosotros éramos amigos (We were / used to be friends)
Vosotros erais You were / used to be Vosotros erais del otro equipo (You were / used to be on the other team)
Ellos eran They were / used to be Ellas eran simpáticas (They were / used to be nice)

 

Pretérito perfecto simple   Examples
Yo fui I was Yo fui el que les contó (I was the one who told them)
Tú fuiste You were Tú fuiste el primero (You were the first one)
Él fue He was Ella fue la primera en llegar (She was the first to arrive)
Nosotros fuimos We were Nosotros no fuimos los culpables (We weren’t the guilty ones)
Vosotros fuisteis You were Vosotros fuistes sobresalientes esa vez (You were outstanding that time)
Ellos fueron They were Ellos fueron malos con nosotros (They were mean to us)

 

Futuro   Examples
Yo seré I will be Yo seré padre en Enero (I will be a father in January)
Tú serás You will be Tú serás mi padrino de boda (You will be my best man)
Él será He will be Él será un arquitecto (He will be an architect)
Nosotros seremos We will be Nosotros seremos amigos (We will be friends)
Vosotros seréis You will be Vosotros seréis nuestros huéspedes (You will be our guests)
Ellos serán They will be Ellas serán las protagonistas (They will be the protagonists)

 

Condicional   Examples
Yo sería I would be Yo sería mejor si entrenara más duro (I would be better if I trained harder)
Tú serías You would be Tú serías mi compañero si hubiésemos entrado a la misma universidad (You would be my classmate if we had entered the same university)
Él sería He would be Él sería más delgado si comiera menos (He would be thinner if he ate less)
Nosotros seríamos We would be Nosotros seríamos millonarios si trabajáramos más (We would be millionaire if we worked more)
Vosotros seríais You would be Vosotros serías más eficientes si hicierais esto (You would be more efficient if you did this)
Ellos serían They would be Ellos serían más energéticos si practicaran deportes (They would be more energetic if the practiced sports)

 

Indicative compound tenses

Pretérito perfecto compuesto   Examples
Yo he sido I have been Yo he sido tu amigo por años (I’ve been your friend for years)
Tú has sido You have been Tú has sido mejor de lo que esperaba (You’ve been better than I expected)
Él ha sido He has been Él ha sido nuestro mejor profesor hasta ahora (He has been our best teacher so far)
Nosotros hemos sido We have been Nosotros hemos sido padres estrictos (we have been strict parents)
Vosotros habéis sido You have been Vosotros habéis sido muy amables (You have been very kind)
Ellos han sido They have been Ellas han sido nuestras clientas por años (They have been our clients for years)

 

Pretérito pluscuamperfecto   Examples
Yo había sido I had been Antes de ser tu amigo, yo había sido tu mentor (Before I was your friend, I had been your mentor)
Tú habías sido You had seen Tú ya habías sido alertada cuando intenté llamarte (You had already been alerted when I tried to call you)
Él había sido He has been Él había sido una influencia para mí hasta que me enteré de lo que pasó (He had been an influencer for me until I found out what happened)
Nosotros habíamos sido We had been Cuando ustedes nos llamaron, nosotros ya habíamos sido invitados (When you called us, we had already been invited)
Vosotros habíais sido You had been Vosotros habías sido arrestados antes de esto (You had been arrested before this)
Ellos habían sido They had been Ellos habían sido los únicos campeones invictos hasta que el otro equipo ganó (They had been the only undefeated champions until the other team won)

 

Pretérito anterior   Examples
Yo hube sido I had been NOTE: this conjugation is rarely used in everyday, real-life Spanish. It would make you sound awkward in a social situation.
Tú hubiste sido You had seen
Él hubo sido He has been
Nosotros hubimos sido We had been
Vosotros hubisteis sido You had been
Ellos hubieron sido They had been

 

Futuro perfecto   Examples
Yo habré sido I will have been Si en dos años ganamos el campeonato, yo habré sido parte de ese triunfo. (If we win the championship in two years’ time, I will have been part of that triumph.
Tú habrás sido You will have been Para ese entonces, tú habrás sido muy exitosa (By then, you will have been very successful)
Él habrá sido He will have been Cuando suceda eso, él ya habrá sido desalojado (When that happens, he will have already been evicted)
Nosotros habremos sido We will have been Nosotros habremos sido notificados para ese entonces (We will have been notified by then)
Vosotros habréis sido You will have been Cuando la nueva era llegue, habréis sido preparados para triunfar en ella (When the new era arrives, you will have been prepared to succeed in it)
Ellos habrán sido They will have been Ellas habrán sido electas para esa fecha (They will have been elected by that time)

 

Condicional perfecto   Examples
Yo habría sido I would have been Si no hubiese estudiado leyes, yo habría sido actor (If I hadn’t studied law, I would have been an actor)
Tú habrías sido You would have been Tú habrías sido el candidato perfecto (You would have been the perfect candidate)
Él habría sido He would have been Ella habría sido feliz si hubiese estudiado en la universidad (She would have been happy if she had studied at the university)
Nosotros habríamos sido We would have been Nosotros no habríamos sido futbolistas si no hubiésemos entrenado desde niños (We wouldn’t have been footballers if we hadn’t trained since little)
Vosotros habríais sido You would have been Vosotros habríais sido mejores si os hubieseis preparado (You would have been better if you had prepared yourselves)
Ellos habrían sido They would have been Ellas habrían sido perjudicadas si no se hubiese conocido la verdad (They would have been affected if the truth hadn’t been known)

 

SUBJUNCTIVE MOOD

Subjunctive simple tenses

Presente   Examples
(que) yo sea I am Ojalá que yo sea el elegido (I wish I am the chosen one)
(que) tú seas You are Ojalá que tú seas capaz de hacerlo (I wish you are able to do it)
(que) él sea He is Ojalá que él sea recompensado (I wish he is rewarded)
(que) nosotros seamos We are Ojalá que nosotros seamos escuchados (I wish we are heard)
(que) vosotros seáis You are Ojalá que vosotros seáis bien recibidos (I wish you are welcomed)
(que) ellos sean They are Ojalá que ellas sean las ganadoras (I wish they are the winners)

 

Pretérito imperfecto / pretérito   Examples
(que) yo fuera o fuese I were Ojalá que yo fuera como él (I wish I were like him)
(que) tú fueras o fueses You were Esperaba que tú fueras diferente (I hoped you were different)
(que) él fuera o fuese He were Si él no fuese así, estaríamos mejor (If he weren’t like that, we would be better off)
(que) nosotros fuéramos o fuésemos We were Ojalá fuéramos más afortunados (I wish we were luckier)
(que) vosotros fuerais o fueseis You were Si fuerais más discretos, podríamos llevarnos mejor (If you were more discreet, we could get along better)
(que) ellos fueran o fuesen They were Si ellas fueran más relajadas, su trabajo no sería tan bueno (If they were more relaxed, their work wouldn’t be as good)

 

Futuro simple / futuro   Examples
(que) yo fuere   NOTE: this conjugation is rarely used in everyday, real-life Spanish. It would make you sound awkward in a social situation.
(que) tú fueres  
(que) él fuere  
(que) nosotros fuéremos  
(que) vosotros fuereis  
(que) ellos fueren  

 

Subjunctive compound tenses

Pretérito perfecto   Examples
(que) yo haya sido I was Espero que yo haya sido de tu agrado (I hope I was of your liking)
(que) tú hayas sido You were Es genial que tú hayas sido elegido (It’s great that you were elected)
(que) él haya sido He was Espero que él haya sido un buen niño (I hope he was a good boy)
(que) nosotros hayamos sido We were ¿Crees que nosotros hayamos sido lo suficientemente buenos? Do you think we were good enough?
(que) vosotros hayáis sido You were Espero que vosotros hayáis sido tratados como os merecéis (I wish you were treated as you deserve)
(que) ellos hayan sido They were ¿Crees que ellos hayan sido culpables? Do you think they were guilty?

 

Pretérito pluscuamperfecto   Examples
(que) yo hubiera / hubiese sido I had been Si yo hubiera sido más cuidadoso, esto no habría sucedido (If I had been more careful, this wouldn’t have happened)
(que) tú hubieras / hubieses sido You had been Si tú hubieras sido más atento, tu novia no te habría dejado (If you had been more attentive, your girlfriend wouldn’t have left you)
(que) él hubiera / hubiese sido He had been Él habría sido un abogado si hubiese sido más perserverante (He would have been a lawyer if he had been more persevering)
(que) nosotros hubiéramos / hubiésemos sido We had been Si nosotros hubiésemos sido hermanos, no nos habríamos llevado bien (If we had been brothers, we wouldn’t have gotten along)
(que) vosotros hubierais / hubieseis sido You had been Si vosotros hubiérais sido así desde el principio, no habría habido ningún problema (If you had been like this since the beginning, there wouldn’t have been any problems)
(que) ellos hubieran / hubiesen sido They had been Si ellos hubiesen sido más cuidadosos, estarían a salvo ahora (If they had been more careful, they would be safe now)

 

Futuro perfecto   Examples
(que) yo hubiere sido   NOTE: this conjugation is rarely used in everyday, real-life Spanish. It would make you sound awkward in a social situation.
(que) tú hubieres sido  
(que) él hubiere sido  
(que) nosotros hubiéremos sido  
(que) vosotros hubiereis sido  
(que) ellos hubieren sido  

 

IMPERATIVE MOOD

(Tú) sé Be Sé una buena niña (Be a good girl)
Usted (sea) Be Sea amable (Be nice)
Vosotros sed Be Sed obedientes con sus padres (Be obedient to your parents)
Ustedes sean Be Sean disciplinados (Be disciplined)

 

Conclusion

The verb “ser” is one of the meanings of the verb “to be” in Spanish. “To be” can be translated as “ser” or “estar”. The difference between “ser” and “estar” is that “ser” describes a permanent state of being, whereas “estar” describes a temporary state of being. Knowing how to conjugate this high frequency verb will help you take your Spanish to the next level.

 

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Resources

Business Spanish vocabulary | 100 key words and phrases

¡Hola, amigas y amigos de SpanishCompadres.com! Welcome to a new, amazing post. My name is Husim Espinoza and I am one of the founders of this blog. Apart from being a licensed language instructor, I also have a business degree from a public university in my home...

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¡Hola, amigas y amigos de SpanishCompadres.com! My name is Husim Espinoza and today I want to tell you what is, from my experience as a language learner and instructor, the best way to start learning Spanish. If you’re reading this post, you have started taking action...

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Spanish IRREGULAR verbs ultimate guide

Spanish IRREGULAR verbs ultimate guide

¡Hola, amigas y amigos de SpanishCompadres.com! laughing Welcome to a new post. On this occasion, we would like to help you out with Spanish irregular verbs. We have come up with an extraordinary article that includes awesome and straight to the point explanations and practice activities that you can easily do while you’re reading.

Spanish irregular verbs are those in which the stem (i.e. the root part of the verb) changes when they are conjugated. For example, in the infinitive form of the verb “cerrar” (to close), the stem is “cerr”, which is followed by the ending “ar”, the conjugated form for the first person singular in the present simple tense is “yo cierro” (I close).  Check out these examples:

Infinitive Conjugated form (stem change) Example English equivalent
empezar empiezas ¡Tú empiezas! You start!
entender ella entiende Ella entiende de finanzas. She understands finance.
mentir ellos mintieron Ellos mintieron en su declaración. They lied in their statement.

 

Table of contents

 

What are Spanish irregular verbs?

In Spanish, all  infinitive forms end in ar, er, or ir. These endings are called conjugations. The part of the verb that comes before the conjugation is called stem. Examples:

 

Infinitive form (stem+conjugation) English equivalent Conjugated form English equivalent
cant + ar = cantar to sing ella cantó she sang
com + er = comer to eat ellos comen they eat
ped + ir = pedir to ask for pides you ask for

  

In the first two examples (cantar, comer), the stem of the verbs remains the same when they are conjugated. Therefore, “cantar” and “comer” are regular verbs. In the third verb, “pedir”, the stem changes when the verb is conjugated. Therefore, the verb “pedir” is an irregular verb, i.e. a verb in which the stem changes when it is conjugated. Each conjugation has its own set of endings that are added to the stem.

 

Note: in the present tense of irregular verbs, the “nosotros” (we) and “vosotros” (you, plural, very formal)  forms are not affected by the stem change. Examples:

 

Infinitive (stem + ending) Conjugated form (same stem) English equivalent
cerr + ar = cerrar nosotros cerramos we close
quer + er = querer vosotros queréis you want or you love

 

How to conjugate spanish irregular verbs 

 

Spanish irregular verbs ar

For Spanish irregular verbs ending in -ar, the stem may change in two ways: 

  1. From e to ie (e.g. cerrar – yo cierro = to close – I close). Examples:

 

Note: endings are the same as those for regular verbs: o, as, a , amos, áis, an

 

Infinitive (stem + ending) cerr + ar = cerrar (to close) English equivalent
Conjugated forms yo cierro I close
tú cierras you close
él / ella / usted cierra he /she closes – you close (singular)
nosotros cerramos we close
vosotros cerráis you close
ellos / ellas / ustedes cierran they / you close (plural)

 

IInfinitive (stem + ending) empez + ar = empezar (to start) English equivalent
Conjugated forms yo empiezo I start
tú empiezas you start
él / ella / usted empieza he /she / starts – you start (singular)
nosotros empezamos we start
vosotros empezáis you start
ellos / ellas / ustedes empiezan they / you start (plural)

 

Infinitive (stem + ending) pens + ar = pensar (to think) English equivalent
Conjugated forms yo pienso I think
tú piensas you think
él / ella / usted piensa he /she / thinks – you think (singular)
nosotros pensamos we think
vosotros pensáis you think
ellos / ellas / ustedes piensan they / you think (plural)

 

 2. From o to ue (eg. almorzar – yo almuerzo = to have lunch – I have lunch)  

 

Infinitive (stem + ending) almorz + ar = almorzar (to have lunch) English equivalent
Conjugated forms yo almuerzo I have lunch
tú almuerzas you have lunch
él / ella / usted almuerza he /she / has lunch – you have lunch (singular)
nosotros almorzamos we have lunch
vosotros almorzáis you have lunch
ellos / ellas / ustedes almuerzan they / you have lunch (plural)

 

Infinitive (stem + ending) encontr + ar = encontrar (to find) English equivalent
Conjugated forms yo encuentro I find
tú encuentras you find
él / ella / usted encuentra he /she / finds – you find (singular)
nosotros encontramos we find
vosotros encontráis you find
ellos / ellas / ustedes encuentran they / you find (plural)

 

Infinitive (stem + ending) record + ar = almorzar (to remember) English equivalent
Conjugated forms yo recuerdo I remember
tú recuerdas you remember
él / ella / usted recuerda he /she / remembers – you remember (singular)
nosotros recordamos we remember
vosotros recordáis you remember
ellos / ellas / ustedes recuerdan they / you remember (plural)

 

Infinitive (stem + ending) jug + ar = jugar (to play) English equivalent
Conjugated forms yo juego I play
tú juegas you play
él / ella / usted juega he /she / plays – you play (singular)
nosotros jugamos we play
vosotros jugáis you play
ellos / ellas / ustedes juegan they / you play (plural)

 

Spanish irregular verbs er

For Spanish irregular verbs ending in -er, the stem may change in two ways: 

  1. From e to ie (e.g. entender – yo entiendo = to understand – I understand). Examples:

 

Note: endings are the same as those for regular verbs: o, es, e , emos, éis, en

 

Infinitive (stem + ending) entend + er = entender (to understand) English equivalent
Conjugated forms yo entiendo I understand
tú entiendes you understand
él / ella / usted entiende he /she understands – you understand (singular)
nosotros entendemos we understand
vosotros entendéis you understand
ellos / ellas / ustedes entienden they / you understand (plural)

 

Infinitive (stem + ending) perd + er = perder (to lose) English equivalent
Conjugated forms yo pierdo I lose
tú pierdes you lose
él / ella / usted pierde he /she / loses – you lose (singular)
nosotros perdemos we lose
vosotros perdéis you lose
ellos / ellas / ustedes pierden they / you lose (plural)

 

Infinitive (stem + ending) quer + er = querer (to want, to love) English equivalent
Conjugated forms yo quiero I want, I love
tú quieres you want, you love
él / ella / usted quiere he /she / wants or loves – you want or love (singular)
nosotros queremos we want, we love
vosotros queréis you want, you love
ellos / ellas / ustedes quieren they / you want or love (plural)

 

Infinitive (stem + ending) ten + er = tener (to have) English equivalent
Conjugated forms yo tengo I have
tú tienes you have
él / ella / usted tiene he /she / has – you have (singular)
nosotros tenemos we have
vosotros tenéis you have
ellos / ellas / ustedes tienen they / you have (plural)

2. From o to ue (e.g. devolver – yo devuelvo = to return – I return [as in “to return a faulty product”]. Examples:

 

Infinitive (stem + ending) devolv + er = devolver (to return) English equivalent
Conjugated forms yo devuelvo I return
tú devuelves you return
él / ella / usted devuelve he /she / returns – you return (singular)
nosotros devolvemos we return
vosotros devolvéis you return
ellos / ellas / ustedes devuelven they / you return (plural)

 

Infinitive (stem + ending) pod + er = poder (to be able, can, may) English equivalent
Conjugated forms yo puedo I can
tú puedes you can
él / ella / usted puede he /she / can – you can (singular)
nosotros podemos we can
vosotros podéis you can
ellos / ellas / ustedes pueden they / you can (plural)

 

Note: the verbs hacer (to do, to make), poner (to put), and saber (to know) are irregular only in the YO form.

 

Infinitive (stem + ending) hac + er = hacer (to do, to make) English equivalent
Conjugated forms yo hago I make
tú haces you make
él / ella / usted hace he /she / makes – you can (singular)
nosotros hacemos we make
vosotros hacéis you make
ellos / ellas / ustedes hacen they / you make (plural)

 

Infinitive (stem + ending) pon + er = poner (to put) English equivalent
Conjugated forms yo pongo I put
tú pones you put
él / ella / usted pone he /she / puts – you put (singular)
nosotros ponemos we put
vosotros ponéis you put
ellos / ellas / ustedes ponen they / you put (plural)

  

Infinitive (stem + ending) sab + er = saber (to know) English equivalent
Conjugated forms yo sé I know
tú sabes you know
él / ella / usted sabe he /she / knows – you know (singular)
nosotros sabemos we know
vosotros sabéis you know
ellos / ellas / ustedes saben they / you know (plural)

 

Spanish irregular verbs ir

For Spanish irregular verbs ending in -er, the stem may change in three ways: 

  1. From e to ie (e.g. mentir – yo miento = to lie – I lie). Examples:

 

Note: endings are the same as those for regular verbs: o, es, e , imos, ís, en

 

Infinitive (stem + ending) ment + ir = mentir (to lie) English equivalent
Conjugated forms yo miento I lie
tú mientes you lie
él / ella / usted miente he /she / lies – you lie (singular)
nosotros mentimos we lie
vosotros mentís you lie
ellos / ellas / ustedes mienten they / you lie (plural)

 

Infinitive (stem + ending) prefer + ir = preferir (to prefer) English equivalent
Conjugated forms yo prefiero I prefer
tú prefieres you prefer
él / ella / usted prefiere he /she / prefers – you prefer (singular)
nosotros preferimos we prefer
vosotros preferís you prefer
ellos / ellas / ustedes prefieren they / you prefer (plural)

 

Infinitive (stem + ending) ven + ir = venir (to come) English equivalent
Conjugated forms yo vengo I come
tú vienes you come
él / ella / usted viene he /she / comes – you come (singular)
nosotros venimos we come
vosotros venís you come
ellos / ellas / ustedes vienen they / you come (plural)

 

Note: venir also has only an irregular YO form.

2. From e to i (e.g. pedir – yo pido = to ask for – I ask for). Examples:

 

Infinitive (stem + ending) ped + ir = pedir (to ask for) English equivalent
Conjugated forms yo pido I ask for
tú pides you ask for
él / ella / usted pide he /she / asks for – you ask for (singular)
nosotros pedimos we ask for
vosotros pedís you ask for
ellos / ellas / ustedes piden they / you ask for (plural)

 

Infinitive (stem + ending) repet + ir = repetir (to repeat) English equivalent
Conjugated forms yo repito I repeat
tú repites you repeat
él / ella / usted repite he /she / repeats – you repeat for (singular)
nosotros repetimos we repeat
vosotros repetís you repeat
ellos / ellas / ustedes repiten they / you repeat (plural)

 

Infinitive (stem + ending) segu + ir = seguir (to follow) English equivalent
Conjugated forms yo sigo I follow
tú sigues you follow
él / ella / usted sigue he /she / follows – you follow (singular)
nosotros seguimos we follow
vosotros seguís you follow
ellos / ellas / ustedes siguen they / you follow (plural)

 

Infinitive (stem + ending) serv + ir = servir (to serve) English equivalent
Conjugated forms yo sirvo I serve
tú sirves you serve
él / ella / usted sirve he /she / serves – you serve (singular)
nosotros servimos we serve
vosotros servís you serve
ellos / ellas / ustedes sirven they / you serve (plural)

 

Infinitive (stem + ending) sonre + ír = sonreír (to smile) English equivalent
Conjugated forms yo sonrío I smile
tú sonríes you smile
él / ella / usted sonríe he /she / smiles – you smile (singular)
nosotros sonreímos we smile
vosotros sonreís you smile
ellos / ellas / ustedes sonríen they / you smile (plural)

3. From o to ue (e.g. dormir – yo duermo = to sleep – I sleep). Examples:

 

Infinitive (stem + ending) dorm + ir = dormir (to sleep) English equivalent
Conjugated forms yo duermo I sleep
tú duermes you sleep
él / ella / usted duerme he /she / sleeps for – you sleep (singular)
nosotros dormimos we sleep
vosotros dormís you sleep
ellos / ellas / ustedes duermen they / you sleep (plural)

 

Note: the stem of Spanish verbs oír (to hear) and salir (to leave, to exit, to go out) changes only in the YO form. Examples:

 

Infinitive (stem + ending) o + ír = oír (to hear) English equivalent
Conjugated forms yo oigo I hear
tú oyes you hear
él / ella / usted oye he /she / hears for – you hear (singular)
nosotros oímos we hear
vosotros oís you hear
ellos / ellas / ustedes oyen they / you hear (plural)

 

Infinitive (stem + ending) sal + ir = oír (to leave) English equivalent
Conjugated forms yo salgo I leave
tú sales you leave
él / ella / usted sales he /she / leaves for – you leave (singular)
nosotros salimos we leave
vosotros salís you leave
ellos / ellas / ustedes salen they / you leave (plural)

 

Spanish irregular verbs exercises

Choose the correct conjugated form to complete the following sentences. The answer key is below question number 10.  

 

  1. Nosotros __________ (salir) a pasear a menudo (We often go for a walk)
  2. salemos
  3. salimos
  4. salirmos

 

  1. Yo __________ (saber) de lo que hablo (I know what I’m talking about)
  2. sabemos
  3. saberé

 

  1. Tú __________ (jugar) con tu consola todos los días (You play with your console every day)
  2. juegas
  3. jugareas
  4. jugas

 

  1. Juan y Diego __________ (oír) voces (Juan and diego hear voices)
  2. oímos
  3. oyen
  4. oye

 

  1. Tu abuela __________ (poner) el pavo en el horno (Your grandma puts the turkey in the oven)
  2. ponemos
  3. pones
  4. pone

 

  1. Tú nunca __________ (recordar) mi cumpleaños (You never remember my birthday)
  2. recuerdas
  3. recordaras
  4. recordas

 

  1. Nosotros __________ (servir) la comida aquí (We serve the food here)
  2. sirvo
  3. servimos
  4. sirvamos

 

  1. Los padres __________ (poder) disciplinar a sus hijos (Parents can discipline their children)
  2. puedes
  3. pueder
  4. pueden

 

  1. Algunas personas __________ (pensar) lo peor sobre ti (Some people think the worst about you)
  2. piensan
  3. piensas
  4. pensan

 

  1. Ellos __________ (tener) mucha suerte (They have a lot of luck)
  2. tienes
  3. tienen
  4. tenemos

 

Answer key

1b 2c 3a 4b 5c 6a 7b 8c 9a 10b

 

Conclusion

Spanish irregular verbs are those in which the stem (i.e. the root part of the verb) changes when they are conjugated. For example, in the infinitive form of the verb “sonreír” (to smile), the stem is “sonre”, which is followed by the ending “ír”, the conjugated form for “yo” (I) in the present simple tense is “yo sonrío” (I smile). Unfortunately, there is no way of knowing whether a verb is regular or irregular just by looking at its infinitive form. Therefore, we suggest practicing by reading the examples and exercises in this article aloud as many times as possible. Remember that in language learning, repetition is key in order to achieve the desired results.

 

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The Spanish reflexive verbs complete guide

The Spanish reflexive verbs complete guide

¡Hola, amigas y amigos de SpanishCompadres.com! In this post, we’ll teach you everything you need to know about Spanish reflexive verbs. Reflexive verbs can be one of the most complex aspects of Spanish learning, but don’t worry. After reading this post, you’ll feel confident enough to start using them in real life interaction with Spanish speakers.

According to the Real Academia Española (RAE), Spanish reflexive verbs do not exist as a verb category on their own. Reflexive sentences and reflexive pronouns do exist though. Reflexive sentences are defined as those that express an action that has an effect on the same entity designated by the subject. Examples: Ayer me lavé el pelo (Yesterday, I washed my hair) / El culpable se ahorcó (The offender hanged himself). Reflexive pronouns are personal pronouns that, functioning as complements of the verb, are preceded by the subject of the sentence. Examples: Se lavó las manos antes de comer (He/She washed his/her hands before eating) / Me he bañado en el río (I have bathed in the river) / Piensas demasiado en ti mismo (You think too much about yourself).

Let’s find out more about Spanish reflexive sentences and pronouns.

 

Table of contents

 

Spanish so called reflexive verbs: a word of caution

According to Real Academia Española’s (Spanish Royal Academy’s) “Nueva gramática de la lengua española”, published in 2009, reflexive verbs do not exist as a category on their own. Instead verbs are classified, according to their syntactic function, into three categories:

  1. Transitive verbs: they require an object in order to convey meaning. Example: Tú recibiste la carta (You received the letter). In this example, the transitive verb is “recibiste” and the object is “la carta”. 
  2. Intransitive verbs: they are not compatible with a direct object. Example: Juan llora (Juan cries). In this sentence, the intransitive verb is “llora”. This verb isn’t compatible with a direct object. Therefore, it’s intransitive.
  3. Copulative verbs: they don’t have a meaning of their own and act only as a link between the subject and the predicate. These verbs are “ser” (to be), “estar” (to be), and “parecer” (to seem). Example: Elizabeth es bonita (Elizabeth is pretty). In this example, the copulative verb is “es”, a conjugation of “ser”.

So called Spanish “reflexive” verbs are simply transitive verbs whose object has the same referent as the subject. Example: Enrique se duchó (Enrique took a shower). In this example, the transitive verb is “duchó” and the object is the same as the subject, i.e. “Enrique”. The reflexive pronoun “se” indicates that the sentence is reflexive. “Se” is equivalent to “himself”, “herself”, “itself” or “themselves”. In this case, a literal translation would be: Enrique showered himself.  

 

Spanish reflexive sentences

Spanish reflexive sentences are sentences in which the action falls on the same subject that performs the action. Examples:

  • Nos tomamos fotos en el viaje. (We took pictures of ourselves on the trip.)
  • Se sintió ofendida por los comentarios. (She felt offended by the comments.)
  • Te ha ido bien. (You’ve done well.) 

In the examples, the personal pronouns “nos”, “se”, and “te” act as reflexive pronouns. They complement the verb by indicating that the action falls on the same subject that performs it. Spanish reflexive pronouns indicate that a sentence is reflexive.

 

Spanish reflexive pronouns

A reflexive pronoun is a personal pronoun which is generally preceded by the explicit or implicit subject of the sentence or clause in which it occurs. Spanish reflexive pronouns can be both unstressed or stressed:

  • Examples of unstressed Spanish reflexive pronouns:
    • María se peinaba (María combed her hair or, literally, María combed herself)
    • Tú te afeitas todos los días (You shave everyday or, literally, You shave yourself everyday)  
    • Nosotros nos vamos de viaje todos los verano (We go on a trip every summer)
  • Examples of stressed Spanish reflexive pronouns:
    • La atraje hacia con suavidad (I gently pulled her towards me)
    • Tu hermana solo piensa en sí misma (Your sister only thinks of herself)

 

List of Spanish reflexive pronouns

#1 me

  • Reflexive pronoun: me
  • Subject pronoun: yo (I)
  • English equivalent: myself
  • Example: Yo me ducho a las seis (I take a shower at six)

#2 te

  • Reflexive pronoun: te
  • Subject pronoun: Tú (you, singular)
  • English equivalent: yourself
  • Example: Te comiste una empanada (You eat an empanada)

#3 se

  • Reflexive pronoun: se
  • Subject pronoun: usted, él, ella, ello, ellos, ellas, ustedes [you (singular, formal), he, she, it, they, you (plural, both formal and informal)]
  • English equivalent: yourself, himself, herself, itself, themselves, yourselves
  • Examples: 
    • Usted se acuesta temprano (You go to bed early)
    • Él se afeita en el baño (He shaves in the bathroom)
    • Ella se baña en la noche (She bathes at night)
    • Ellas se duermen en el trabajo a veces (They fall asleep at work sometimes)
    • Ustedes se deben cuidar (You must take care of yourselves)

#4 nos

  • Reflexive pronoun: nos
  • Subject pronoun: nosotros (we)
  • English equivalent: ourselves
  • Example: Nos tomamos un refresco en el restaurant (We had a soft drink in the restaurant)

 

#5 os (formal, used only in Spain)

  • Reflexive pronoun: os
  • Subject pronoun: vosotros (you, plural, very formal used in Spain only) 
  • English equivalent: yourselves
  • Example: Os enfadas con facilidad (You get angry easily)

 

List of frequent so called Spanish reflexive verbs (verbos pronominales)

#1 acostarse

  • English equivalent: to go to bed
  • Example: Los niños se acuestan temprano (Children go to bed early)

#2 acordarse 

  • English equivalent: to remember
  • Example: Me acordé de tu cumpleaños (I remembered your birthday)

#3 afeitarse

  • English equivalent: to shave
  • Example: Me afeito día por medio (I shave every other day)

#4 bañarse

  • English equivalent: to bath
  • Example: Me baño en el río (I bathe in the river)

#5 dormirse, quedarse dormido

  • English equivalent: to fall asleep, to go to sleep
  • Example: Ellos se quedan dormidos en el trabajo (They fall asleep at work)

#6 ducharse

  • English equivalent: to take a shower
  • Example: ¿Te duchas todos los días? (Do you take a shower everyday?)

#7 enfadarse, enojarse

  • English equivalent: to get angry, to get upset
  • Example: Ella se enojó conmigo (She got angry with me)

#8 gustarse

  • English equivalent: to like
  • Example: ¿Te gustan los helados? (Do you like ice cream?)

#9 lavarse

  • English equivalent: to wash oneself
  • Example: ¿A qué hora van a lavarse? (What time are you going to wash?)

#10 hacerse

  • English equivalent: to make
  • Example: Me haces reír (You make me laugh)

#11 levantarse

  • English equivalent: to get up
  • Example: Ellos se levantan muy temprano (They get up really early)

#12 llamarse

  • English equivalent: to be called
  • Example: Yo me llamo Ruperto (My name is Ruperto or I am called Ruperto)

#13 secarse

  • English equivalent: to dry oneself
  • Example: Debes secarte el pelo (You must dry your hair)

#14 sentarse

  • English equivalent: to sit down
  • Example: ¿Quieres sentarte? (Would you like to sit down?)

#15 sentirse

  • English equivalent: to feel
  • Example: No te sientas mal por eso (Don’t feel bad about that)

#16 vestirse

  • English equivalent: to get dressed
  • Example: ¡Vístete! (Get dressed!)

 

Position of Spanish reflexive pronouns

 

  • Affirmative sentences: before the verb. Example: Ella se sienta en el sillón. (She sits on the armchair).
  • Negative sentences: before the verb. Example: Ella no se sienta en el sillón. (She doesn’t sit on the armchair).
  • Commands: after the verb. Example: Siéntese en el sillón. Sit on the armchair.

 

    • Requests: before or after the verb. Examples: ¿Me puedo sentar en el sillón? or ¿Puedo sentarme en el sillón? (May I sit on the armchair?) 

 

  • Questions: before the verb. Example: ¿Se quiere sentar en el sillón? (Would you like to sit on the armchair?)
  • After verb + preposition: after the verb. Example: ¿Vas a sentarte en el sillón? (Are you going to bathe?)

 

  • Before verb + preposition: before the verb. Example: ¿Te vas a sentar en el sillón? (Are you going to sit on the armchair?)

 

Frequent mistakes with Spanish reflexive pronouns

A frequent mistake (even made by non-totally-proficient native speakers) is using two reflexive pronouns instead of one. Example:

  • ¿Me puedo sentarme aquí? (INCORRECT)
  • ¿Puedo sentarme aquí? or ¿Me puedo sentar aquí? (CORRECT)

You can use two “te” reflexive pronouns with the past tense of verbs. Examples:

  • Te sentaste en mi sillón (You sat on my armchair) 
  • Te ganaste un premio (You earned a prize)
  • ¿Te quedaste hasta el final? (Did you stay until the end?)

 

Let’s practice Spanish reflexive sentences and pronouns

Instructions: read the following sentences and choose the correct alternative (answer key below questions).

#1 ¿Puedo sentar__ aquí? (Can I sit here?)

  1. se
  2. me
  3. te

#2 __ ducho todos los días. (I take a shower everyday)

  1. te
  2. se
  3. me

#3 ¡Láva__ las manos antes de comer! (Wash your hands before eating!)

  1. te
  2. me
  3. nos

#4 ¿A qué hora __ levantas? (What time do you get up?)

  1. se
  2. te
  3. nos

#5 ¡Apúra__! (Hurry up!)

  1. me
  2. se
  3. te

#6 ¿A qué hora __ levantas? (What time do you get up?)

  1. te
  2. me
  3. nos

#7 __ llamo Juan. (My name’s Juan)

  1. Se
  2. Me
  3. Te

#8 Nosotros __ tomamos fotos en vacaciones. (We take pictures of ourselves on vacation)

  1. se
  2. te
  3. nos

#9 Mi esposa __ compra ropa en el mall. (My wife buys clothes for herself in the mall)

  1. se
  2. te
  3. nos

#10 ¿Ustedes __ van a casar?) (Are you getting married?)

  1. se
  2. te
  3. nos

#11 __ ganaste un premio (You earned a prize)

  1. Nos
  2. Me
  3. Te

#12 Ellos __ divierten mucho (They have a lot of fun)

  1. se
  2. te
  3. nos

#13 Quéda__, por favor (Stay, pease)

  1. se
  2. te
  3. nos

#14 ¡Vámo__! (Let’s go)

  1. se
  2. te
  3. nos

#15 Debes afeitar__ para verte mejor. (You must shave to look better)

  1. te
  2. se
  3. nos

Answer key

1b 2c 3a 4b 5c 6a 7b 8c 9a 10b 11c 12a 13b 14c 15a 

 

Conclusion

Learning how to use reflexive sentences and reflexive pronouns will greatly improve your Spanish, since this is considered an advanced topic in Spanish language learning. Reflexive sentences express an action that has an effect on the same person, animal or thing that performs it. Reflexive pronouns are personal pronouns that are preceded by the subject of the sentence. Examples: Se lavó la cara en la mañana (He/She washed his/her face in the morning) / Me he bañado en playa (I have bathed at the beach) / Debes hacerlo por ti mismo (You must do it on your own). Some verbs, like “acostarse”, “ducharse”, “vestirse” often occur with reflexive verbs. We have selected the most frequent ones for this post, but there are many others. Spanish reflexive pronouns may occur before or after a verb, but keep in mind that you must use them just once and not repeat them in the sentence (Example: “Me voy a levantar” and notMe voy a levantarme”).

 

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Resources

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Spanish verb conjugation | Spanish top 50 most used verb conjugations

Spanish verb conjugation | Spanish top 50 most used verb conjugations

Verbs are, by far, the most complex part of the Spanish language. The huge number of possibilities and combinations when it comes to Spanish verb conjugation makes verbs one of the most discouraging aspects of learning this language. Believe it or not, many people quit learning Spanish because they feel overwhelmed by “los verbos” (the verbs).

But don’t worry! Spanish Compadres are here to help. We know time is your most valuable asset. Therefore, we have prepared a super post with the top 50 most frequent Spanish verb conjugations, including examples for each verb form. We have based our research on the “Corpus de Referencia del Español Actual” (Reference Corpus of Current Spanish), issued by the “Real Academia Española de la Lengua” (Royal Spanish Academy).

The examples used in this article are things people would say in everyday conversation.

The top 50 most used Spanish verb conjugations are the following: ha, ser, son, fue, había , era, está, han, hay, puede, tiene, hace, dijo, sido, estado, hacer, estaba, hecho, están, decir, debe, pasado, va, sea, tenía, poder, ver, pueden, tienen, he, tener, será, dice, parece, haber, habían, hizo, eran, estar, dar, da, podría, sería, dicho, partir, llegar, trata, sé, iba, quiere.

Table of contents

Top 10 frequently used Spanish verb conjugations

  1. ha 
  2. ser 
  3. son
  4. fue
  5. había 
  6. era
  7. está
  8. han
  9. hay
  10. puede

Frequently used Spanish verb conjugations: 11-20

11. tiene
12. hace
13. dijo
14. sido
15. estado
16. hacer
17. estaba
18. hecho
19. están
20. decir

Frequently used Spanish verb conjugations: 21-30

21. debe
22.
pasado
23. va
24. sea
25. tenía
26. poder
27. ver
28. pueden
29. tienen
30. he

Frequently used Spanish verb conjugations: 31-40

31. tener
32.
será
33. dice
34. parece
35. haber
36. habían
37. hizo
38. eran
39. estar
40. dar

Frequently used Spanish verb conjugations: 41-50

41. da
42. podría
43. sería
44. dicho
45. partir
46. llegar
47. trata
48. sé
49. iba
50. quiere

Conclusion

Resources

¡Comparte esta publicación! (Share this post!)

 

Top 10 frequently used Spanish verb conjugations

  1. ha 

Pronunciation: /a/

Examples (with English translation or equivalent):

  • No ha llegado todavía. (He/She/It hasn’t arrived yet.)
  • ¿Cómo te ha ido? (How have you been?)
  • Ha sido una buena experiencia. (It’s been a good experience.)

 

  1. ser

Pronunciation: /ser/

Examples:

  • No sé. Puede ser. (I don’t know. Maybe.)
  • Tendrá que ser así. (It’ll have to be that way.)
  • ¿Cuándo va a ser la próxima reunión? (When is the next get together going to be?)

 

  1. son

Pronunciation: /son/

Examples:

  • ¿Son originales? (Are they original?)
  • Son buena onda (They’re easy going.)
  • Son las 3 y media. (It’s half past three.)

 

  1. fue

Pronunciation: /fue/

Examples:

  • Fue una buena persona. (He/She was a good person.)
  • El lunes pasado fue feriado. (Last Monday was a holiday.)
  • ¿Quién fue? (Who was it?)

 

  1. había

Pronunciation: /a-bi’a/

Examples:

  • No había nadie. (Nobody was there.)
  • Ya lo había hecho. (I/He/She’d already done it.)
  • Pensé que te habías ido. (I thought you’d left.)

 

  1. era

Pronunciation: /era/

Examples:

  • No era lo que esperaba. (He/She/It wasn’t what I expected.)
  • Era la mejor opción. (It was the best choice.)
  • Era una persona respetada. (He/She was a respected person.)

 

  1. está

Pronunciation: /es-ta’/

Examples:

  • Aló. ¿Está tu mamá? (Hello. Is your mom there?)
  • Está delicioso. (It’s delicious).
  • Está ocupada. (She’s busy.)

 

  1. han

Pronunciation: /an/

Examples:

  • Han pasado tres días. (Three days have passed.)
  • Estas han sido las mejores vacaciones. (This has been the best vacation.)
  • ¿Cómo han estado? (How have you been?) (plural)

 

  1. hay

Pronunciation: /ai/

Examples:

  • ¿Hay pan? (Is there bread?)
  • Hay que cuidarse. (We must take care of ourselves.) (General statement)
  • ¿Qué hay ahí? (What’s in there?)

 

  1. puede

Pronunciation: /pue’-de/

Examples:

  • Puede ser. (Maybe.)
  • Puede decir lo que quiera. (You/He/She can say whatever you/he/she want[s].) 
  • Puede pasar. (You may come/go in.)

 

Frequently used Spanish verb conjugations: 11-20

 

  1. tiene

Pronunciation: /tie’-ne/

Examples:

  • Tiene que hacer mucho frío para que me quede en casa. (It must be really cold for me to stay home.)
  • ¿Y qué tiene? (So what?) 
  • No tiene nada que ver. (It has nothing to do.)

 

  1. hace

Pronunciation: /a’-se/

Examples:

  • Hace frío. (It’s cold.)
  • Hace calor. (It’s hot.) 
  • Terminé hace rato. (I finished long ago.)

 

  1. dijo

Pronunciation: /di’-ho/

Examples:

  • Dijo que sí. (He/She said “yes”.)
  • Dijo que estaba bien. (He/She said he/she was OK.) 
  • No dijo nada. (He/She didn’t say anything.)

 

  1. sido

Pronunciation: /si’-do/

Examples:

  • Ha sido una buena experiencia. (It’s been a good experience.)
  • Hemos sido estafados. (We’ve got ripped off.) 
  • Has sido la única persona. (You’ve been the only person.)

 

15. estado

Pronunciation: /es-ta’-do/

Examples:

  • ¿Cómo has estado? (How have you been?)
  • Hemos estado un poco enfermos. (We’ve been a little sick.) 
  • ¿Cómo ha estado tu papá? (How’s your dad been?)

16. hacer

Pronunciation: /a-ser’/

Examples:

  • Tenemos mucho que hacer. (We have a lot to do.)
  • ¿Qué vas a hacer? (What are you going to do?) 
  • No sé qué hacer. (I don’t know what to do.)

 

17. estaba

Pronunciation: /es-ta’-ba/

Examples:

  • Estaba bien. (He/She/It was OK.)
  • Estaba con mi familia. (I was with my family.) 
  • No estaba ahí. (He/She/It wasn’t there.)

 

  1. hecho

Pronunciation: /e’-cho/

Examples:

  • ¿Qué has hecho últimamente? (What have you been up to lately?)
  • Está hecho. (It’s done.) 
  • No he hecho nada aún. (I haven’t done anything yet.)

 

  1. están

Pronunciation: /es-tan’/

Examples:

  • ¿Cómo están? (How are you?) [You: plural]
  • Están contentos. (They’re happy.) 
  • Están bien. (They’re fine.)

 

  1. decir

Pronunciation: /de-sir’/

Examples:

  • No tengo nada que decir. (I have nothing to say.)
  • Va a decir lo mismo de siempre. (He/She’ll say the same as usual.) 
  • ¿Qué quieres decir? (What do you mean?)

 

Frequently used Spanish verb conjugations: 21-30

 

  1. debe

Pronunciation: /de’-be/

Examples:

  • Debe venir atrasado. (He must be late.)
  • Debe ser así. (It must be like this.) 
  • Debe haberle pasado algo. (Something must have happened to him/her.)

 

  1. pasado

Pronunciation: /pa-sa’-do/

Examples:

  • Debe haberle pasado algo. (Something must have happened to him/her.)
  • Ha pasado mucho tiempo. (It’s been a long time.) 
  • Han pasado muchas cosas. (A lot of things have happened.)

 

  1. va

Pronunciation: /va/

Examples:

  • ¿Cómo te va? (How’s it going?)
  • Va a llover. (It will rain.) 
  • Va a haber una fiesta. (There will be a party.)

 

  1. sea

Pronunciation: /se’-a/

Examples:

  • Bueno. Como sea. (OK. Whatever.)
  • Ojalá sea así. (I wish it’s like that.) 
  • Lo lograré sea como sea. (I’ll make it whatever it takes.)

 

  1. tenía

Pronunciation: /te-ni’-a/

Examples:

  • Tenía que salir, pero se me olvidó. (I had to go out, but I forgot.)
  • ¿Qué tenía tu abuelo? (What was wrong with your grandpa?) 
  • No tenía cómo avisarte. (I didn’t have any way to let you know.)

 

  1. poder

Pronunciation: /po-der’/

Examples:

  • Tenemos que apurarnos para poder ver el partido. (We have to hurry so we can watch the game.)
  • ¿Vas a poder o no? (Will you be able or not?) 
  • Llevo dos noches sin poder dormir. (I haven’t been able to sleep for two nights.)
  1. ver

Pronunciation: /ver/

Examples:

  • ¿Qué tiene que ver eso? (What does that have to do?)
  • Vamos a ver qué sucede. (Let’s see what happens.)
  • Tenemos que ver cómo funciona. (We have to see how it works.)

 

  1. pueden

Pronunciation: /pue’-den/

Examples:

  • ¿Pueden venir a la ceremonia? (Can you come to the ceremony?)
  • No pueden venir. (They can’t come.)
  • ¿Vas a venir? (Are you coming?)

 

  1. tienen

Pronunciation: /tie’-nen/

Examples:

  • No tienen nada mejor que hacer. (They have nothing better to do.)
  • ¿Tienen frío? (Are you cold?)
  • Ustedes tienen que participar. (You have to participate.)

 

  1. he

Pronunciation: /e/

Examples:

  • He hecho muchas cosas. (I’ve done many things.)
  • ¿Qué he hecho? (What have I done?)
  • No he dormido mucho. (I haven’t slept much.)

 

Frequently used Spanish verb conjugations: 31-40

 

  1. tener, será, dice, parece, haber, habían, hizo, eran, estar, dar

Pronunciation: /te-ner’/

Examples:

  • Vas a tener que hacerlo. (You’re going to have to do it.)
  • Fue por no tener en cuenta lo que nos dijeron. (It was because we didn’t take into account what we were told.)
  • ¿Te gustaría tener un auto? (Would you like to have a car?)

 

  1. será

Pronunciation: /se-ra’/

Examples:

  • Será mejor que tú lo hagas. (It’ll be better if you do it.)
  • Será un gran evento. (It’ll be a great event.)
  • ¿No será mucho? (Is it too much?)

 

  1. dice

Pronunciation: /di’-se/

Examples:

  • ¿Qué dice ahí? (What does it say there?)
  • Dice que no le gusta. (He/She says he/she doesn’t like it.)
  • Veamos qué dice tu madre. (Let’s see what your mother says.)

 

  1. parece

Pronunciation: /pa-re’-se/

Examples:

  • Parece que va a llover. (It seems it’s going to rain.)
  • Se parece a su padre. (He/She looks like his/her father.)
  • No me parece. (I don’t think so.)

 

  1. haber

Pronunciation: /a-ber’/

Examples:

  • Van a haber muchas sorpresas. (There will be many surprises.)
  • No debería haber ningún problema. (There should be no problem.)
  • Gracias por haber venido. (Thanks for coming.)

 

  1. habían

Pronunciation: /a-bi’-an/

Examples:

  • Habían muchos invitados. (There were many guests.)
  • ¿Qué había para comer? (What was there to eat?)
  • No te había visto nunca. (I’d never seen you before.)

 

  1. hizo

Pronunciation: /i’-so/

Examples:

  • Lo hizo bien. (He/She did it well.)
  • ¿Qué hizo de almuerzo? (What did he/she make for lunch?)
  • Su hijo no hizo sus tareas. (Your son didn’t do his homework.)

 

  1. eran

Pronunciation: /e’-ran/

Examples:

  • Eran nuestros amigos. (They were our friends.)
  • ¿Cuántos eran? (How many were they?)
  • No eran lo que esperábamos. (They weren’t what we expected.)

 

  1. estar

Pronunciation: /es-tar’/

Examples:

  • ¿Vas a estar en casa? (Will you be home?)
  • ¿Cómo va a estar el día? (What will the weather be like today?)
  • Queremos estar cómodos. (We want to be comfortable.)

 

  1. dar

Pronunciation: /dar/

Examples:

  • ¿Me los vas a dar? (Will you give them to me?)
  • No te lo quiero dar. (I don’t want to give it to you.)
  • Queremos dar nuestra ropa a la caridad. (We want to give our clothes to charity.)

 

Frequently used Spanish verb conjugations: 41-50

 

  1. da

Pronunciation: /da/

Examples:

  • Me da lo mismo. (I don’t care.)
  • ¿Cuánto da? (What’s the result?)
  • Me da escalofríos. (It gives me chills.)

 

  1. podría

Pronunciation: /po-dri’-a/

Examples:

  • ¿Podría repetirlo, por favor? (Could you repeat that, please?)
  • No podría hacer algo así. (I couldn’t do something like that.)
  • ¿Qué podría ser? (What could it be?)

 

  1. sería

Pronunciation: /se-ri’-a/

Examples:

  • Serían $1.000 pesos. (That would be $1,000 pesos.)
  • Sería genial. (It would be great.)
  • No sería lo ideal, pero hagámoslo de todas maneras. (That wouldn’t be ideal, but let’s do it anyway.)

 

  1. dicho

Pronunciation: /di’-cho/

Examples:

  • Se han dicho muchas cosas. (Many things have been said.)
  • ¿Qué has dicho? (What have you said?)
  • No ha dicho nada hasta ahora. (He/She hasn’t said anything so far.)

 

  1. partir

Pronunciation: /par-tir’/

Examples:

  • Vamos a partir mañana. (We’re leaving tomorrow.)
  • Tenemos que partir esto por la mitad. (We have to split this in half.)
  • ¿A qué hora vas a partir? (What time are you leaving?)

 

  1. llegar

Pronunciation: /ye-gar’/

Examples:

  • ¿A qué hora vas a llegar? (What time will you arrive?)
  • Que pena que tuvimos que llegar a esto.  (It’s a shame we had to come to this.)
  • Quiero llegar pronto. (I want to arrive soon.)

 

  1. trata

Pronunciation: /tra’-ta/

Examples:

  • ¿De qué se trata el libro? (What’s the book about?)
  • Se trata de una guerra.  (It’s about a war.)
  • Trata de hacerlo bien. (Try to do it well.)

 

Pronunciation: /se/

Examples:

  • No sé cómo se hace. (I don’t know how to do it.)
  • Sé mucho sobre marketing.  (I know a lot about marketing.)
  • Ya sé eso. (I already know that.)

 

  1. iba

Pronunciation: /i’-ba/

Examples:

  • Justo iba a llamarte. (I was just going to call you.)
  • Iba a levantarme temprano, pero la alarma no sonó.  (I was going to get up early, but the alarm didn’t go off.)
  • Iba a decir algo. (I/He/She was going to say something.)

 

  1. quiere

Pronunciation: /kie’-re/

Examples:

  • No quiere venir. (He/She doesn’t want to come?)
  • ¿Qué quiere?  (What does he/she/it want? or What do you want? [formal])
  • Ella quiere ir a Chile. (She wants to go to Chile.)

 

Conclusion

If learning Spanish was a videogame, verb conjugations would be the hardest level. Start by practicing the top 50 most frequent Spanish verb conjugations to grasp their use in real-life, everyday conversation. Practice saying each sentence out loud. Create more sentences for situations in which you think you’ll have to use Spanish. Get together with a Spanish learning partner and role play situations in which you need to use these verb conjugations. We’ll be expanding on this and other Spanish language related topics. 

 

Resources

Corpus de Referencia del Español Actual (CREA) – Listado de frecuencias: 

1000 formas más frecuentes: http://corpus.rae.es/frec/1000_formas.TXT

 

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In order to share this post on your social media, just click on any of the buttons on the left side (computer) or at the bottom of your screen (mobile). ¡Comparte! (Share!)

 

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