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Business Spanish vocabulary | 100 key words and phrases

Business Spanish vocabulary | 100 key words and phrases

¡Hola, amigas y amigos de SpanishCompadres.com! Welcome to a new, amazing post. My name is Husim Espinoza and I am one of the founders of this blog. Apart from being a licensed language instructor, I also have a business degree from a public university in my home country, Chile. I’ve started and managed several businesses, mostly in the digital marketing industry. I have experience teaching foreign languages in elementary school, middle school, high school and in universities. One of the most valuable experiences I’ve had in my career is that of teaching business English to Business Management students for seven years. I’ve found that acquiring business vocabulary (ie. learning and using it correctly) is a tough task for most language learners, since it requires a high degree of accuracy when it comes to word choice, due to the fact that nobody wants to make mistakes when doing business. For this reason, I would like to share with you a list of essential words, phrases, and expressions that are frequently used in business settings. I would also like to show you the pronunciation of such vocabulary with audio and challenge you with some exercises at the end of this article. If this sounds interesting to you, keep on reading!

 

Spanish business vocabulary is mainly comprised of words and phrases that are used in business administration, economics, finance, and marketing. For example, in business administration, we use the words “el gerente / la gerente” or “el administrador / la administradora” to refer to a person who manages a business, depending on their position in the company’s “el organigrama” (organization chart). In economics, we talk about “la demanda y la oferta” (demand and supply), “los mercados” (markets), “la industria” (industry), “los bienes y los servicios” (goods and services), etc. In finance, we need to interact with “el banco” (the bank), “pedir un préstamo” (ask for a loan), “conseguir financiamiento” (get financing), and so  on. In marketing (“la mercadotecnia”), we use words like “el producto” (the product), “el precio” (price), “la promoción” (promotion), “la publicidad” (advertising), etc. As you can see, each vocabulary item is accompanied by its corresponding definite article. We highly suggest you take articles into consideration when practicing vocabulary, since words are usually preceded by them. Let’s look at more examples!

 

Table of contents

 

Spanish management / administration vocabulary

  1. La estrategia (strategy)
  2. La misión (mission statement)
  3. La visión (vision)
  4. Los valores corporativos (corporate values)
  5. La administración (administration)
  6. La gestión (management)
  7. El gerente / la gerente (the manager)
  8. La empresa (the company)
  9. El negocio (the business)
  10. La organización (the organization)
  11. El proceso (the process)
  12. La planificación (planning)
  13. El plan (the plan)
  14. La dirección (direction)
  15. El control (control)
  16. La retroalimentación (feedback)
  17. La gerencia (management)
  18. El departamento de administración (the adminstration department)
  19. El departamento de finanzas (the finance department)
  20. El departamento de marketing (the marketing department)
  21. El departamento de ventas (the sales department)
  22. Los empleados / Las empleadas (the employees)
  23. Los colaboradores / Las colaboradoras (the collaborators)
  24. Los recursos humanos (human resources)
  25. El consultor / La consultora (the consultant)

Business Spanish: administration vocabulary

by SpanishCompadres | Business Spanish

Spanish economics vocabulary

  1. La economía (the economy)
  2. La riqueza (riches)
  3. El Producto Interno Bruto (PIB) (Gross Domestic Product, GDP)
  4. El consumo privado (private consumption)
  5. El gasto público (public expenditure)
  6. La inversión / las inversiones (investment / investments)
  7. Las exportaciones (exports)
  8. Las importaciones (imports)
  9. La balanza comercial (balance of trade)
  10. La industria (the industry)
  11. El mercado / los mercados (the market / the markets)
  12. Los bienes (goods)
  13. Los servicios (services)
  14. La producción (production)
  15. La inflación (inflation)
  16. La política monetaria (monetary policy)
  17. El Banco Central (Central Bank, Reserve Bank)
  18. La tasa de interés / las tasas de interés (interest rate / interest rates)
  19. El tipo de cambio (exchange rate)
  20. El ministro de hacienda / La ministra de hacienda (the Secretary / Minister of the Treasure)
  21. El ministro de economía / La ministra de economía (The Secretary Minister of Economy)
  22. La banca (the banks)
  23. La tasa de ocupación (employment rate)
  24. El desempleo (unemployment)
  25. La economía de libre mercado (free market economy)

Business Spanish: economics vocabulary

by SpanishCompadres.com | Business Spanish

Spanish finance vocabulary

  1. Las finanzas (finance)
  2. La administración financiera (financial administration)
  3. Las finanzas corporativas (corporate finance)
  4. La rentabilidad (profitability)
  5. El riesgo (risk)
  6. El accionista / los accionistas (the shareholder / the shareholder)
  7. Los ingresos por venta (revenue)
  8. Las ventas (sales)
  9. Los costos (costs)
  10. Los costos operacionales (operating costs)
  11. Los gastos (expenses)
  12. Los gastos administrativos (administrative expenses)
  13. Los gastos de venta (selling expenses)
  14. El margen de utilidad (profit margin)
  15. Los impuestos (taxes)
  16. El interés (interest)
  17. El flujo de efectivo (cashflow)
  18. Los pagos (payments)
  19. Los activos (assets)
  20. Los pasivos (liabilities)
  21. El patrimonio (equity)
  22. La deuda (debt)
  23. Las utilidades brutas (gross profit)
  24. Las utilidades netas (net profit)
  25. Un préstamo (a loan)

Business Spanish: finance vocabulary

by SpanishCompadres.com | Business Spanish

Spanish marketing vocabulary

  1. El marketing / la mercadotecnia (marketing)
  2. La publicidad (advertising)
  3. Los clientes (the clients / the customers)
  4. Un aviso (an ad)
  5. El precio (price)
  6. La promoción (promotion)
  7. El posicionamiento del producto (product placement)
  8. El producto (product)
  9. La campaña de marketing (marketing campaign)
  10. La campaña de publicidad (advertising campaign)
  11. La agencia de marketing (marketing agency)
  12. La agencia de publicidad (advertising agency)
  13. Una página web (a webpage)
  14. Una fanpage (a fanpage)
  15. Un perfil de Instagram (an Instagram profile)
  16. Un perfil en redes sociales (a social media profile)
  17. Una lista de correos electrónicos (an email list)
  18. Un prospecto (a prospect)
  19. Llamadas en frío (cold calls)
  20. La propuesta de valor (the value proposition)
  21. El valor (value)
  22. La creación de valor (value creation)
  23. La comunicación (communication)
  24. Las necesidades de cliente (customer needs)
  25. El nicho de mercado (market niche)

Business Spanish: marketing vocabulary

by SpanishCompadres.com | Business Spanish

Let’s practice!

Choose the best alternative to complete the following sentences. The answer key is below exercise 10.

 

  1. ______________ está a cargo de que la empresa siga su estrategia.

a. El gerente
b. El empleado
c. El consultor

2. Se decidió bajar ___________ para fomentar la inversión en el país.

a. la utilidad neta
b. las tasas de interés
c. el costo operacional

3. Debo ir al banco a ______________.

a. pedir dinero
b. pedir efectivo
c. pedir un préstamo

4. Para promocionar el producto, pondremos un ______________ en TV.

a. aviso
b. marketing
c. publicidad

5. ______________ es la primera etapa del proceso administrativo.

a. El feedback
b. La planificación
c. El control

6. Hay un déficit en la ______________ , ya que las importaciones fueron superiores a las exportaciones.

a. inversión
b. tasa de interés
c. balanza comercial

7. A mayor ______________ , generalmente mayor es la ______________.

a. riesgo – rentabilidad
b. utilidad – riesgo
c. ganancia – deuda

8. Vamos a contratar a  ______________ para esta campaña publicitaria.

a. un banco
b. una agencia de publicidad
c. el Banco Central

9. ______________ nos sugirió vender activos para aumentar la liquidez.

a. La organización
b. El producto
c. La consultora

10. El mercado de ______________ generalmente requiere menor inversión.

a. los servicios
b. los productos
c. los gastos

Answer key

1a 2b 3c 4a 5b 6c 7a 8b 9c 10a 

 

Conclusion

In this article, we have presented 100 essential business Spanish vocabulary items. Of course, there are tons of terms that have not been included on this list. We are just saving them for a future post. Practice this vocabulary by reading it out loud. Use the audio files below each section of the article. I have recorded the correct pronunciation of each set of words so that you can sound as close as possible to a native speaker of Spanish. Remember that in business there is little to no room for communication mistakes. You must be very sure about the right words that you will use in a business setting. This will make your business allies and counterparts perceive you as a solid businessman or woman. By mastering this key vocabulary, you will be able to differentiate yourself from the majority of Spanish language learners, since, as we indicated in the introduction, business vocabulary in one of the toughest aspects of second language acquisition.

 

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Business Spanish vocabulary | 100 key words and phrases

¡Hola, amigas y amigos de SpanishCompadres.com! Welcome to a new, amazing post. My name is Husim Espinoza and I am one of the founders of this blog. Apart from being a licensed language instructor, I also have a business degree from a public university in my home...

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Start to learn Spanish | First steps to learning Spanish

Start to learn Spanish | First steps to learning Spanish

¡Hola, amigas y amigos de SpanishCompadres.com! My name is Husim Espinoza and today I want to tell you what is, from my experience as a language learner and instructor, the best way to start learning Spanish. If you’re reading this post, you have started taking action towards the goal of becoming a more proficient speaker of the Spanish language. Congratulations! As you will read on, there are many excellent reasons to start learning Spanish. Before you continue reading any further, keep in mind that the purpose of this article is to put you with on the starting line of the process of starting to learn a new language on your own. Therefore, we will be covering such topics as how learning Spanish will benefit you, how to start learning Spanish, how to actually learn the language, how to become fluent in Spanish, and how to learn Spanish on your own.

Contrary to what many people think, the best way to start learning Spanish (or any new language, actually) is becoming aware of the mindset that is needed in order to provide our brain with the ability to download, install and operate a new language in a proficient way. I know this may sound a little ethereal, but the first thing you need to know about how to start learning Spanish is a harsh truth: learning a new language is a process that will require, more than any other thing, the practice of self-discipline. There will be many times in which you won’t feel like going through the process of learning (quitting distractions, concentrating, doing the drills, pronouncing difficult phonemes, and so on). On these occasions, your self-disciplined action, rather than your language learning ability, will determine your success or failure on this quest. After this key point is internalized and turned into a habit, language learning is like any other process. You need to set goals, understand the big picture of the process, and follow the steps (i.e. taking action!). 

Here is a list of the topics that will be covered in order to help you get started.

 

Table of contents

 

How can learning Spanish benefit you

Being conscious of how Spanish can help you make progress is an important piece of knowledge, since it will give you extrinsic motivation to start learning this language. In our article entitled “Why is it important to learn Spanish?”, we outlined six powerful reasons to give you a little push to become a language learner:

 

#1 English speakers can take great advantage of two similarities and a fixed system of sounds

#2 Spanish is a widely spoken language

#3 The level of English in Spanish speaking countries is generally low proficiency 

#4 Spanish can help you avoid becoming a victim of tricksters and cheaters 

#5 Hispanic culture is fascinating

#6 Spanish is the language of love

In sum, learning Spanish is important because it will definitely open doors. Being the official language in 21 countries and spoken by 534.3 million people around the world, Spanish has the potential to open more doors than other languages, bringing up exciting opportunities for their users, from meeting new interesting friends to building international collaborations for study or work purposes. Due to its shared roots with English, these languages have a lot in common: both use the Roman alphabet and have a high number of similar words that can be used to boost your comprehension from the very beginning. This can help you learn Spanish faster and more easily than other foreign languages, and put your new skills into practice really soon with its many speakers. Your Spanish will be very useful when visiting Spanish speaking countries where, in general, English is not widely spoken by locals. Even more, it will protect you from crime and allow you to participate in Hispanic communities and cultures, which are many and quite diverse, and could never be fully experienced without Spanish. And, last but not least, Spanish is a beautiful musical and emotional language that will definitely flow deep into your heart and make you mind fly!

 

How can I start to learn Spanish

As we said earlier, the first and most important thing you need to consider before start learning a language is self-discipline. In other words, you need to be aware of the fact that you won’t always feel like practicing Spanish, no matter which method or course you’re following. Learning a language is like working out to stay fit. If you only work out a couple of times a week for a short time, most likely you won’t have any results. But if you work out every day for only thirty minutes, the results will be considerable better. The same happens with languages and Spanish is not an exception. Being bilingual is a privilege reserved only for those who have been persistent, willing to put in the hours and the conscious effort to achieve goals. Now that we’ve discussed the SELF-DISCIPLINE mindset that is necessary for language learning, let’s look at other factors you need to bear in mind before you start learning Spanish:

 

  1. Set clear language-learning goals in terms of what you need Spanish for. This simply means that going on vacation for a month to a Spanish speaking location is not the same as going to a Spanish speaking as an exchange student for a year. Your needs will be totally different in terms of the kind of language you will need to learn. A tourist who is going on vacation for a short period of time will need to learn language for making hotel reservations, moving around in the city, ordering food at a restaurant, buying products in the local market, etc. The focus will be on listening and speaking skills, since most of the language use contexts will be spoken. On the other hand, an exchange student will want to learn language for socializing, asking questions in class, taking a bus to school, and so on. The focus will be on all major language acquisition skills: reading, listening, writing, and speaking. In addition, do you need to validate your Spanish language level through an examination? If so, which exam is it? Are there any exam-specific courses that will help you get a good score?
  2. Look for goal-specific material o a goal-specific course. Now that you have set clear goals in terms of what you want to accomplish, look for material or a course that is specific to you needs. If you want to learn Spanish on your own, make sure that the material you purchase comes from a reputable source, since the quality of materials in the language learning industry is variable. For example, if you need to to improve your Spanish grammar, a simple search for the terms “Spanish grammar…” on Amazon can be very helpful to our purposes, since Amazon offers a wide range of results and user reviews often indicate the quality of the material. If you want to take a course, make sure that the course is taught by a prestigious institution or instruction. Most serious language institutes can be recognizable because of their history, their staff experience and number of students.
  3. Make a plan to cover the material or complete the course. Now you need to add “Spanish learning” to your daily schedule. We highly suggest having a daily planner in writing, so you can see how learning Spanish will become part of your routine. If you will learn Spanish on your own, dedicate at least half an hour a day to work on your material. If you will take a course, your instructor will tell you how much time you will need to dedicate to your daily practice in order to achieve the desired outcome.
  4. Execute the plan and stick to it with SELF DISCIPLINE. Now comes the most important part of your plan: execution. This means daily Spanish practice for at least half an hour for at least the next 6 to 12 months. Make Spanish a part of your daily life by quitting all distractions like social media, TV, music or any other to help your brain focus on the task at hand.     

 

How can we learn the Spanish language

A very interesting question that I often get asked is “How can human beings learn a language?” We learn a language by developing four skills:

  • Listening
  • Reading
  • Speaking
  • Writing

In most language language learning courses, the most basic levels focus on receptive skills (listening and reading). Productive skills (speaking and writing) are introduced gradually as learners make progress. 

You can understand what each language level means in terms of the things you can do with language. The Common European Framework of Reference for Languages: Learning, Teaching, Assessment (CEFR) is an international standard that has six levels, called A1, A2, B1, B2, C1, and C2. A C2 language user is a native-like user of the target language. Most international language examinations are designed following CEFR standards. If you want to learn more about this topics, check out the links in the “useful resources” section at the end of this article. 

You also need to add vocabulary and grammar into the mix in order to make the perfect Spanish learning recipe.

Another question that we get asked all the time is “How can I learn Spanish fast for free?”. The answer to this question will depend on what the learner considers “fast”, the goals, and many other variables. Can you learn Spanish for free? Of course! You just need to find high quality materials that will suit your needs and using it rigorously without unnecessary distractions around you. 

 

How can I learn Spanish fluently

According to the Foreign Service Institute (FSI), it takes between 600 and 750 class hours (24 weeks) to achieve professional working proficiency in the target language. This information is based on the time US diplomats usually take to reach such level. A Spanish language learner may take shorter or longer depending on factors like the learner’s natural ability to learn a language, their previous linguistic experience, and guided learning time.

Note: In the FSI timelines, Spanish is a “category 1” language, meaning that it’s in the “languages more similar to English” group, along with Danish, Dutch, French, Italian, Norwegian, Portuguese, Romanian, and Swedish. Learning any of these languages would take an average of 24 weeks. If you practice everyday for 24 weeks, it would take around 4.5 hours a day for you to achieve working proficiency (meaning you’d be able to land a job in which the target language is used).

There is more info on this interesting topic in our article entitled “How long does it take to learn Spanish”. Check it out!

 

How can I learn Spanish on my own

There are many ways in which you can learn a language by yourself at home. These are some of the ways in which you can learn Spanish at home, at your job or on the go:

  1. Use an app like Duolingo
  2. Buy a textbook on Amazon
  3. Buy an online course

Remember that the most important aspect of language learning is self discipline!

 

Conclusion

In this article, we covered some of the most important points that you need to consider before committing yourself to learning Spanish. The most important variable in the Spanish learning equation is self discipline. Like any other skill, language is acquired through systematic practice, which requires being able to stick to a course or program even when we don’t feel like practicing or attending classes. Setting language goals, finding materials or courses that meet those specific goals, making a plan and executing it are key components of any serious endeavor to acquire a second language. Developing listening, reading, speaking, and writing skills in combination with vocabulary and grammar activities will accelerate your Spanish learning process. You can test your language level with any of the standardized language examinations that are designed following CEFR standards. 

 

Useful resources

 

Share with your friends

We have come up with this content because we really want to help you become a more proficient speaker of Spanish. Help us spread the word by sharing this article on your social media. Click on any of the share buttons on the left (computer) or at the bottom (mobile) of your screen. ¡Comparte!

 

Business Spanish vocabulary | 100 key words and phrases

¡Hola, amigas y amigos de SpanishCompadres.com! Welcome to a new, amazing post. My name is Husim Espinoza and I am one of the founders of this blog. Apart from being a licensed language instructor, I also have a business degree from a public university in my home...

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MEGA POST: The verb TO BE in Spanish | ALL conjugations

MEGA POST: The verb TO BE in Spanish | ALL conjugations

¡Hola, amigas y amigos de SpanishCompadres.com! Welcome to a new article! The verbs “SER” and “ESTAR” (to be) are among the most used verbs in any language. 

Therefore, we have prepared a super post with ALL conjugations for the verb “estar” in Spanish. We have also come up with different example sentences for the conjugations that are actually used in real-life talk, so you can practice vocabulary and pronunciation by reading them out loud.

The verb “to be” in Spanish can be translated as “ser” or “estar”, depending on the context. As a general distinction, the verb “estar” indicates a temporary state of being. For example, in the sentence “Mi esposa está feliz” (My wife is happy) the verb “está” (conjugated form of “estar”) indicates a temporary state, the fact that the subject is happy IN THIS MOMENT. 

The verb “ser” indicates a permanent state of being. For example, in the sentence “Mi esposa es feliz” (My wife is happy), the verb “es” (conjugated form of “ser”) indicates a permanent state, the fact that the subject is ALWAYS happy. 

Let’s check out all the conjugations of the verb “to be” in Spanish.

 

Table of contents

    

What does estar mean in Spanish?

As we explained in the introduction, “estar” is one of the meanings of the verb “to be” in Spanish. “To be” can be translated as “ser” or “estar”. The difference between “ser” and “estar” is that “ser” describes a permanent state of being (e.g. El pan es caro / Bread is expensive / Bread is ALWAYS expensive), whereas “estar” describes a temporary state of being (e.g. El pan está caro / Bread is expensive / Bread is expensive RIGHT NOW). 

 

Verb ESTAR conjugation

 

Non-conjugated forms

Infinitive estar
Gerund estando
Participle estado

 

INDICATIVE MOOD

 

Presente   Examples
Yo estoy I am (Yo) Estoy en el supermercado (I’m at the supermarket)
Tú estás You are Tú estás esperando un milagro (You are waiting for a miracle)
Él está He is Ella está enojada (She’s angry)
Nosotros estamos We are Nosotros estamos bien (We are fine)
Vosotros estáis You are Ustedes no están en peligro (You are not in danger)
Ellos están They are Ellos están en el café (They are in the café)

 

Pretérito imperfecto   Examples
Yo estaba I was Yo estaba pensando en ti (I was thinking about you)
Tú estabas You were Tú estabas como loco (You were like crazy)
Él estaba He was Él no estaba donde dijo (He wasn’t where he said he was)
Nosotros estábamos We were Nosotros estábamos almorzando (We were having lunch)
Vosotros estábais / Ustedes estaban You were Vosotros estábais / Ustedes estaban tomando té (You were having tea)
Ellos estaban They were Ellos estaban trabajando (They were working)

 

Pretérito perfecto simple   Examples
Yo estuve I was Yo estuve molesto, pero se me pasó (I was upset, but I got over it)
Tú estuviste You were Tú estuviste dormida por diez horas (You were asleep for ten hours)
Él estuvo He was Ella estuvo aquí ayer (She was here yesterday)
Nosotros estuvimos We were Nosotros estuvimos en esa clase (We were in that class)
Vosotros estuvisteis / Ustedes estuvieron You were Vosotros estuvisteis / Ustedes estuvieron detenidos (You were detained)
Ellos estuvieron They were Ellos estuvieron coludidos (They were colluded)

 

Futuro   Examples
Yo estaré I will be Yo no estaré aquí cuando vuelvas (I won’t be here when you get back)
Tú estarás You will be Tú estarás en España cuando leas esto (You will be in Spain when you read this)
Él estará He will be Él estará contento después de la sorpresa (He will be happy after the surprise)
Nosotros estaremos We will be Nosotros estaremos contando los días (We’ll be counting the days)
Vosotros estaráis / Ustedes estarán You will be Vosotros estaráis / Ustedes estarán con nosotros mañana (You will be with us tomorrow)
Ellos estarán They will be Ellos estarán dentro de los clasificados (They will be among the classified ones)

 

Condicional   Examples
Yo estaría I would be Yo estaría más contento si fueses más amable (I would be happier if you were nicer)
Tú estarías You would be Tú estarías conmigo si tuviese más dinero (You would be with me if I had more money)
Él estaría He would be Ella no estaría resfriada si se hubiese cuidado (She wouldn’t have a cold if she had taken care of herself)
Nosotros estaríamos We would be Nosotros ya estaríamos allá si hubiésemos tomado el avión antes (We would already be there if we had taken an earlier flight)
Vosotros estaríais / Ustedes estarían You would be Vosotros estaríais / Ustedes estarían mejor allá (You would be better there)
Ellos estarían They would be Ellas estarían desmotivadas si no fuesen tan fuertes (They would be demotivated if they weren’t so strong)

 

Pretérito perfecto compuesto   Examples
Yo he estado I have been Yo he estado peor (I have been worse)
Tú has estado You have been Tú no has estado disponible por varios días (You haven’t been available for several days)
Él ha estado He has been Él no ha estado preocupado de ese asunto (He hasn’t been worried about that issue)
Nosotros hemos estado We have been Nosotros hemos estado aquí desde las cuatro (We have been here since 4 pm)
Vosotros habéis / Ustedes han estado You have been Ustedes han estado con nosotros desde el comienzo (You have been with us since the beginning)
Ellos han estado They have been Ellas han estado en Argentina tres veces (They have been in Argentina three times)

 

Pretérito pluscuamperfecto   Examples
Yo había estado I had been Yo había estado aquí hace años (I had been here years ago)
Tú habías estado You had seen Tú habías estado trabajando conmigo desde pequeño (You had been working with me since you were little)
Él había estado He has been Él había salido cuando llegué a la oficina (He had left when I got to the office)
Nosotros habíamos estado We had been Nosotros no habíamos estado bien hasta que llegaste (We hadn’t been well until you arrived)
Vosotros habíais / Ustedes habían estado You had been Ustedes habían estado muy ocupados antes de tomarse vacaciones (You had been too busy before taking a vacation)
Ellos habían estado They had been Ellas habían estado en España dos veces antes (They had been in Spain twice before)

 

Pretérito anterior   Examples
Yo hube estado I had been NOTE: this conjugation is rarely used in everyday, real-life Spanish. It would make you sound awkward in a social situation.
Tú hubiste estado You had seen
Él hubo estado He has been
Nosotros hubimos estado We had been
Vosotros hubisteis / Ustedes hubieron estado You had been
Ellos hubieron estado They had been

 

Futuro perfecto   Examples
Yo habré estado I will have been Cuando sean las seis, ya habré estado en camino (By six, I will have been on my way)
Tú habrás estado You will have been Para la próxima semana, ya habrás estado en dos ciudades de Chile (By next week, you will have been in two cities in Chile)
Él habrá estado He will have been Él habrá estado en su oficina dos veces para ese entonces (He will have been in his office twice by then)
Nosotros habremos estado We will have been Nosotros habremos estado de visita tres veces para entonces (We will have visited three times by then)
Vosotros habréis / Ustedes habrán estado You will have been Ustedes ya habrán estado aquí cuando él venga (You will have already been here when he comes)
Ellos habrán estado They will have been Ellas ya habrán estado en su dormitorio cuando llegue su prima (They will already have been in her bedroom when their cousin arrives)

 

Condicional perfecto   Examples
Yo habría estado I would have been Yo habría estado fuera de aquí (I would have been out of here)
Tú habrías estado You would have been Tú habrías estado sola si no fuera por él (You would have been alone if it weren’t for him)
Él habría estado He would have been Él habría estado triste de no ser por ti (He would have been sad if it wasn’t for you)
Nosotros habríamos estado We would have been Nosotros habríamos estados preocupados si hubiese pasado algo (We would have been worried if something had happened)
Vosotros habríais / Ustedes habrían estado You would have been Ustedes habrían estado en peligro de no ser por la policía (You would have been in danger if it weren’t for the police)
Ellos habrían estado They would have been Ellos habrían estado en los EEUU si no hubiesen viajado (They would have been in the USA if they hadn’t traveled)

 

SUBJUNCTIVE MOOD

 

Presente   Examples
(que) yo esté I am No creo que yo esté bien considerado ahí (I don’t think I am wel regarded there)
(que) tú estés You are Ojalá que tú estés mejor para esa fecha (I wish you are better by that time)
(que) él esté He is Deseo que él esté en mi fiesta de cumpleaños (I wish he is at my birthday party)
(que) nosotros estemos We are No creo que nosotros estemos listos (I don’t think we are ready)
(que) vosotros estéis / ustedes estén You are Ojalá que ustedes estén contentos (I wish you are happy)
(que) ellos estén They are Oremos para que ellos estén bien (Let’s pray they are OK)

 

Pretérito imperfecto / pretérito   Examples
(que) yo estuviera o estuviese I were Si yo estuviera solo, me sacaría los zapatos (If I were alone, I’d take my shoes off)
(que) tú estuvieras o estuvieses You were Si tú estuvieras soltera, tendrías muchos pretendientes (If you were single, you would have many pretenders)
(que) él estuviera o estuviese He were Si ella estuviese en problemas, nos habría llamado (If she were in trouble, she would have called)
(que) nosotros estuviéramos o estuviésemos We were Si nosotros estuviéramos más preparados, pasaríamos la prueba fácilmente (If we were more prepared, we would pass the test easily)
(que) vosotros estuvierais o estuvieseis / ustedes estuvieran o estuviesen You were Si ustedes estuvieran despiertos a esa hora, podríamos juntarnos (If you were awake at that time, we could get together)
(que) ellos estuvieran o estuviesen They were Si ellas estuvieran en la ciudad, podríamos ir al cine (If they were in the city, we could go to the cinema)

 

Futuro simple / futuro   Examples
(que) yo estuviere   NOTE: this conjugation is rarely used in everyday, real-life Spanish. It would make you sound awkward in a social situation.
(que) tú estuvieres  
(que) él estuviere  
(que) nosotros estuviéremos  
(que) vosotros estuviereis / ustedes estuvieren  
(que) ellos estuvieren  

 

Pretérito perfecto   Examples
(que) yo haya estado I was No creo que yo haya estado en mi mejor momento (I don’t think I was at my prime)
(que) tú hayas estado You were Puede que tú hayas estado en esa fiesta (Maybe you were at that party)
(que) él haya estado He was No creo que ella haya estado hablando en serio (I don’t think she was talking seriously)
(que) nosotros hayamos estado We were No creo que nosotros hayamos estado pasándolo mal (I don’t think we were having a bad time)
(que) vosotros hayáis estado / ustedes hayan You were Puede que ustedes hayan estado un poco ebrios (Maybe you were a little drunk)
(que) ellos hayan estado They were Puede que ellos hayan estado bromeando (Maybe they were joking)

 

Pretérito pluscuamperfecto   Examples
(que) yo hubiera / hubiese estado I had been Ojalá yo hubiera estado ahí para verte (I wish I had been there to see you)
(que) tú hubieras / hubieses estado You had been Ojalá tú hubieras estado en mi lugar (I wish you had been in place)
(que) él hubiera / hubiese estado He had been Ojalá que él hubiera estado en su trabajo más temprano (I wish he had been at work earlier)
(que) nosotros hubiéramos / hubiésemos estado We had been Ojalá que nosotros hubiéramos estado más comprometidos (I wish we had been more committed)
(que) vosotros hubierais o hubieseis / ustedes hubieran o hubiesen estado You had been Ojalá que ustedes hubieran estado en mejores condiciones (I wish you had been in better condition)
(que) ellos hubieran / hubiesen estado They had been Ojalá que ellas hubieran estado aquí antes (I wish they had been here earlier)

 

Futuro perfecto   Examples
(que) yo hubiere estado   NOTE: this conjugation is rarely used in everyday, real-life Spanish. It would make you sound awkward in a social situation.
(que) tú hubieres estado  
(que) él hubiere estado  
(que) nosotros hubiéremos estado  
(que) vosotros hubiereis / ustedes hubieren estado  
(que) ellos hubieren estado  

 

IMPERATIVE MOOD

 

(Tú) está(te) Be ¡Estáte quieto, por favor! (Be still, please!)
(Ustedes) estad / estén Be Estén alertas (Be alert)

 

What does ser mean in Spanish?

As we explained in the introduction, “ser” is one of the meanings of the verb “to be” in Spanish. “To be” can be translated as “ser” or “estar”. The difference between “ser” and “estar” is that “ser” describes a permanent state of being (e.g. La joven es bonita / The young girl is pretty / The young girl ALWAYS looks pretty), whereas “estar” describes a temporary state of being (e.g. La joven está bonita / The young girl is pretty / The young girl looks pretty NOW). 

 

Verb SER conjugation

 

Non-conjugated forms

Infinitive ser
Gerund siendo
Participle sido

 

Indicative mood 

 

Presente   Examples
Yo soy I am Yo soy Juan (I am Juan)
Tú eres You are ¿Tú eres María? (Are you María?)
Él es He is Él es mi cuñado (He is my brother in law)
Nosotros somos We are Nosotros somos los dueños (We are the owners)
Vosotros sois You are Vosotros sois nuestros amigos (You are our friends)
Ellos son They are Ellas son mis hijas (They are my daughters)

 

Pretérito imperfecto   Examples
Yo era I was / used to be Yo era un buen estudiante (I was / used to be a good student)
Tú eras You were / used to be Tú no eras así antes (You were not / didn’t use to be like this before)
Él era He was / used to be Ella era la mejor de su clase (She was / used to be the best in her class)
Nosotros éramos We were / used to be Nosotros éramos amigos (We were / used to be friends)
Vosotros erais You were / used to be Vosotros erais del otro equipo (You were / used to be on the other team)
Ellos eran They were / used to be Ellas eran simpáticas (They were / used to be nice)

 

Pretérito perfecto simple   Examples
Yo fui I was Yo fui el que les contó (I was the one who told them)
Tú fuiste You were Tú fuiste el primero (You were the first one)
Él fue He was Ella fue la primera en llegar (She was the first to arrive)
Nosotros fuimos We were Nosotros no fuimos los culpables (We weren’t the guilty ones)
Vosotros fuisteis You were Vosotros fuistes sobresalientes esa vez (You were outstanding that time)
Ellos fueron They were Ellos fueron malos con nosotros (They were mean to us)

 

Futuro   Examples
Yo seré I will be Yo seré padre en Enero (I will be a father in January)
Tú serás You will be Tú serás mi padrino de boda (You will be my best man)
Él será He will be Él será un arquitecto (He will be an architect)
Nosotros seremos We will be Nosotros seremos amigos (We will be friends)
Vosotros seréis You will be Vosotros seréis nuestros huéspedes (You will be our guests)
Ellos serán They will be Ellas serán las protagonistas (They will be the protagonists)

 

Condicional   Examples
Yo sería I would be Yo sería mejor si entrenara más duro (I would be better if I trained harder)
Tú serías You would be Tú serías mi compañero si hubiésemos entrado a la misma universidad (You would be my classmate if we had entered the same university)
Él sería He would be Él sería más delgado si comiera menos (He would be thinner if he ate less)
Nosotros seríamos We would be Nosotros seríamos millonarios si trabajáramos más (We would be millionaire if we worked more)
Vosotros seríais You would be Vosotros serías más eficientes si hicierais esto (You would be more efficient if you did this)
Ellos serían They would be Ellos serían más energéticos si practicaran deportes (They would be more energetic if the practiced sports)

 

Pretérito perfecto compuesto   Examples
Yo he sido I have been Yo he sido tu amigo por años (I’ve been your friend for years)
Tú has sido You have been Tú has sido mejor de lo que esperaba (You’ve been better than I expected)
Él ha sido He has been Él ha sido nuestro mejor profesor hasta ahora (He has been our best teacher so far)
Nosotros hemos sido We have been Nosotros hemos sido padres estrictos (we have been strict parents)
Vosotros habéis sido You have been Vosotros habéis sido muy amables (You have been very kind)
Ellos han sido They have been Ellas han sido nuestras clientas por años (They have been our clients for years)

 

Pretérito pluscuamperfecto   Examples
Yo había sido I had been Antes de ser tu amigo, yo había sido tu mentor (Before I was your friend, I had been your mentor)
Tú habías sido You had seen Tú ya habías sido alertada cuando intenté llamarte (You had already been alerted when I tried to call you)
Él había sido He has been Él había sido una influencia para mí hasta que me enteré de lo que pasó (He had been an influencer for me until I found out what happened)
Nosotros habíamos sido We had been Cuando ustedes nos llamaron, nosotros ya habíamos sido invitados (When you called us, we had already been invited)
Vosotros habíais sido You had been Vosotros habías sido arrestados antes de esto (You had been arrested before this)
Ellos habían sido They had been Ellos habían sido los únicos campeones invictos hasta que el otro equipo ganó (They had been the only undefeated champions until the other team won)

 

Pretérito anterior   Examples
Yo hube sido I had been NOTE: this conjugation is rarely used in everyday, real-life Spanish. It would make you sound awkward in a social situation.
Tú hubiste sido You had seen
Él hubo sido He has been
Nosotros hubimos sido We had been
Vosotros hubisteis sido You had been
Ellos hubieron sido They had been

 

Futuro perfecto   Examples
Yo habré sido I will have been Si en dos años ganamos el campeonato, yo habré sido parte de ese triunfo. (If we win the championship in two years’ time, I will have been part of that triumph.
Tú habrás sido You will have been Para ese entonces, tú habrás sido muy exitosa (By then, you will have been very successful)
Él habrá sido He will have been Cuando suceda eso, él ya habrá sido desalojado (When that happens, he will have already been evicted)
Nosotros habremos sido We will have been Nosotros habremos sido notificados para ese entonces (We will have been notified by then)
Vosotros habréis sido You will have been Cuando la nueva era llegue, habréis sido preparados para triunfar en ella (When the new era arrives, you will have been prepared to succeed in it)
Ellos habrán sido They will have been Ellas habrán sido electas para esa fecha (They will have been elected by that time)

 

Condicional perfecto   Examples
Yo habría sido I would have been Si no hubiese estudiado leyes, yo habría sido actor (If I hadn’t studied law, I would have been an actor)
Tú habrías sido You would have been Tú habrías sido el candidato perfecto (You would have been the perfect candidate)
Él habría sido He would have been Ella habría sido feliz si hubiese estudiado en la universidad (She would have been happy if she had studied at the university)
Nosotros habríamos sido We would have been Nosotros no habríamos sido futbolistas si no hubiésemos entrenado desde niños (We wouldn’t have been footballers if we hadn’t trained since little)
Vosotros habríais sido You would have been Vosotros habríais sido mejores si os hubieseis preparado (You would have been better if you had prepared yourselves)
Ellos habrían sido They would have been Ellas habrían sido perjudicadas si no se hubiese conocido la verdad (They would have been affected if the truth hadn’t been known)

 

SUBJUNCTIVE MOOD

 

Presente   Examples
(que) yo sea I am Ojalá que yo sea el elegido (I wish I am the chosen one)
(que) tú seas You are Ojalá que tú seas capaz de hacerlo (I wish you are able to do it)
(que) él sea He is Ojalá que él sea recompensado (I wish he is rewarded)
(que) nosotros seamos We are Ojalá que nosotros seamos escuchados (I wish we are heard)
(que) vosotros seáis You are Ojalá que vosotros seáis bien recibidos (I wish you are welcomed)
(que) ellos sean They are Ojalá que ellas sean las ganadoras (I wish they are the winners)

 

Pretérito imperfecto / pretérito   Examples
(que) yo fuera o fuese I were Ojalá que yo fuera como él (I wish I were like him)
(que) tú fueras o fueses You were Esperaba que tú fueras diferente (I hoped you were different)
(que) él fuera o fuese He were Si él no fuese así, estaríamos mejor (If he weren’t like that, we would be better off)
(que) nosotros fuéramos o fuésemos We were Ojalá fuéramos más afortunados (I wish we were luckier)
(que) vosotros fuerais o fueseis You were Si fuerais más discretos, podríamos llevarnos mejor (If you were more discreet, we could get along better)
(que) ellos fueran o fuesen They were Si ellas fueran más relajadas, su trabajo no sería tan bueno (If they were more relaxed, their work wouldn’t be as good)

 

Futuro simple / futuro   Examples
(que) yo fuere   NOTE: this conjugation is rarely used in everyday, real-life Spanish. It would make you sound awkward in a social situation.
(que) tú fueres  
(que) él fuere  
(que) nosotros fuéremos  
(que) vosotros fuereis  
(que) ellos fueren  

 

Pretérito perfecto   Examples
(que) yo haya sido I was Espero que yo haya sido de tu agrado (I hope I was of your liking)
(que) tú hayas sido You were Es genial que tú hayas sido elegido (It’s great that you were elected)
(que) él haya sido He was Espero que él haya sido un buen niño (I hope he was a good boy)
(que) nosotros hayamos sido We were ¿Crees que nosotros hayamos sido lo suficientemente buenos? Do you think we were good enough?
(que) vosotros hayáis sido You were Espero que vosotros hayáis sido tratados como os merecéis (I wish you were treated as you deserve)
(que) ellos hayan sido They were ¿Crees que ellos hayan sido culpables? Do you think they were guilty?

 

Pretérito pluscuamperfecto   Examples
(que) yo hubiera / hubiese sido I had been Si yo hubiera sido más cuidadoso, esto no habría sucedido (If I had been more careful, this wouldn’t have happened)
(que) tú hubieras / hubieses sido You had been Si tú hubieras sido más atento, tu novia no te habría dejado (If you had been more attentive, your girlfriend wouldn’t have left you)
(que) él hubiera / hubiese sido He had been Él habría sido un abogado si hubiese sido más perserverante (He would have been a lawyer if he had been more persevering)
(que) nosotros hubiéramos / hubiésemos sido We had been Si nosotros hubiésemos sido hermanos, no nos habríamos llevado bien (If we had been brothers, we wouldn’t have gotten along)
(que) vosotros hubierais / hubieseis sido You had been Si vosotros hubiérais sido así desde el principio, no habría habido ningún problema (If you had been like this since the beginning, there wouldn’t have been any problems)
(que) ellos hubieran / hubiesen sido They had been Si ellos hubiesen sido más cuidadosos, estarían a salvo ahora (If they had been more careful, they would be safe now)

 

Futuro perfecto   Examples
(que) yo hubiere sido   NOTE: this conjugation is rarely used in everyday, real-life Spanish. It would make you sound awkward in a social situation.
(que) tú hubieres sido  
(que) él hubiere sido  
(que) nosotros hubiéremos sido  
(que) vosotros hubiereis sido  
(que) ellos hubieren sido  

 

IMPERATIVE MOOD

 

(Tú) sé Be Sé una buena niña (Be a good girl)
(Usted) sea Be Sea amable (Be nice)
(Vosotros) sed Be Sed obedientes con sus padres (Be obedient to your parents)
(Ustedes) sean Be Sean disciplinados (Be disciplined)

 

Conclusion

The verb “estar” is one of the meanings of the verb “to be” in Spanish. “To be” can be translated as “ser” or “estar”. 

The verb “ser” is another meaning of the verb “to be” in Spanish. “To be” can be translated as “ser” or “estar”. 

The difference between “ser” and “estar” is that “ser” describes a permanent state of being, whereas “estar” describes a temporary state of being. Knowing how to conjugate this high frequency verb will help you take your Spanish to the next level.

 

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Conjugate ESTAR in Spanish | ALL conjugations

¡Hola, amigas y amigos de SpanishCompadres.com! Welcome to a new article! The verb “ESTAR” (to be, temporary) is one of the most used verbs in any language. Spanish is also the case. Therefore, we have prepared a super post with ALL conjugations for the verb “estar” in Spanish. We have also come up with example sentences for each conjugation, so you can practice vocabulary and pronunciation by reading them out loud.

The verb “to be” in Spanish can be translated as “ser” or “estar”, depending on the context. As a general distinction, the verb “estar” indicates a temporary state of being. For example, in the sentence “Mi esposa está feliz” (My wife is happy) the verb “está” (conjugated form of “estar”) indicates a temporary state, the fact that the subject is happy IN THIS MOMENT. 

The verb “ser” indicates a permanent state of being. For example, in the sentence “Mi esposa es feliz” (My wife is happy), the verb “es” (conjugated form of “ser”) indicates a permanent state, the fact that the subject is ALWAYS happy. 

Let’s check out all the conjugations of the verb “estar”.    

 

Table of contents

 

What does estar mean in Spanish?

As we explained in the introduction, “estar” is one of the meanings of the verb “to be” in Spanish. “To be” can be translated as “ser” or “estar”. The difference between “ser” and “estar” is that “ser” describes a permanent state of being (e.g. El pan es caro / Bread is expensive / Bread is ALWAYS expensive), whereas “estar” describes a temporary state of being (e.g. El pan está caro / Bread is expensive / Bread is expensive RIGHT NOW). 

 

Verb ESTAR conjugation

 

Non-conjugated forms

Infinitive estar
Gerund estando
Participle estado

 

INDICATIVE MOOD

 

Presente Examples
Yo estoy I am (Yo) Estoy en el supermercado (I’m at the supermarket)
Tú estás You are Tú estás esperando un milagro (You are waiting for a miracle)
Él está He is Ella está enojada (She’s angry)
Nosotros estamos We are Nosotros estamos bien (We are fine)
Vosotros estáis You are Ustedes no están en peligro (You are not in danger)
Ellos están They are Ellos están en el café (They are in the café)

 

Pretérito imperfecto Examples
Yo estaba I was Yo estaba pensando en ti (I was thinking about you)
Tú estabas You were Tú estabas como loco (You were like crazy)
Él estaba He was Él no estaba donde dijo (He wasn’t where he said he was)
Nosotros estábamos We were Nosotros estábamos almorzando (We were having lunch)
Vosotros estábais / Ustedes estaban You were Vosotros estábais / Ustedes estaban tomando té (You were having tea)
Ellos estaban They were Ellos estaban trabajando (They were working)

 

Pretérito perfecto simple Examples
Yo estuve I was Yo estuve molesto, pero se me pasó (I was upset, but I got over it)
Tú estuviste You were Tú estuviste dormida por diez horas (You were asleep for ten hours)
Él estuvo He was Ella estuvo aquí ayer (She was here yesterday)
Nosotros estuvimos We were Nosotros estuvimos en esa clase (We were in that class)
Vosotros estuvisteis / Ustedes estuvieron You were Vosotros estuvisteis / Ustedes estuvieron detenidos (You were detained)
Ellos estuvieron They were Ellos estuvieron coludidos (They were colluded)

 

Futuro Examples
Yo estaré I will be Yo no estaré aquí cuando vuelvas (I won’t be here when you get back)
Tú estarás You will be Tú estarás en España cuando leas esto (You will be in Spain when you read this)
Él estará He will be Él estará contento después de la sorpresa (He will be happy after the surprise)
Nosotros estaremos We will be Nosotros estaremos contando los días (We’ll be counting the days)
Vosotros estaráis / Ustedes estarán You will be Vosotros estaráis / Ustedes estarán con nosotros mañana (You will be with us tomorrow)
Ellos estarán They will be Ellos estarán dentro de los clasificados (They will be among the classified ones)

 

Condicional Examples
Yo estaría I would be Yo estaría más contento si fueses más amable (I would be happier if you were nicer)
Tú estarías You would be Tú estarías conmigo si tuviese más dinero (You would be with me if I had more money)
Él estaría He would be Ella no estaría resfriada si se hubiese cuidado (She wouldn’t have a cold if she had taken care of herself)
Nosotros estaríamos We would be Nosotros ya estaríamos allá si hubiésemos tomado el avión antes (We would already be there if we had taken an earlier flight)
Vosotros estaríais / Ustedes estarían You would be Vosotros estaríais / Ustedes estarían mejor allá (You would be better there)
Ellos estarían They would be Ellas estarían desmotivadas si no fuesen tan fuertes (They would be demotivated if they weren’t so strong)

 

Pretérito perfecto compuesto Examples
Yo he estado I have been Yo he estado peor (I have been worse)
Tú has estado You have been Tú no has estado disponible por varios días (You haven’t been available for several days)
Él ha estado He has been Él no ha estado preocupado de ese asunto (He hasn’t been worried about that issue)
Nosotros hemos estado We have been Nosotros hemos estado aquí desde las cuatro (We have been here since 4 pm)
Vosotros habéis / Ustedes han estado You have been Ustedes han estado con nosotros desde el comienzo (You have been with us since the beginning)
Ellos han estado They have been Ellas han estado en Argentina tres veces (They have been in Argentina three times)

 

Pretérito pluscuamperfecto Examples
Yo había estado I had been Yo había estado aquí hace años (I had been here years ago)
Tú habías estado You had seen Tú habías estado trabajando conmigo desde pequeño (You had been working with me since you were little)
Él había estado He has been Él había salido cuando llegué a la oficina (He had left when I got to the office)
Nosotros habíamos estado We had been Nosotros no habíamos estado bien hasta que llegaste (We hadn’t been well until you arrived)
Vosotros habíais / Ustedes habían estado You had been Ustedes habían estado muy ocupados antes de tomarse vacaciones (You had been too busy before taking a vacation)
Ellos habían estado They had been Ellas habían estado en España dos veces antes (They had been in Spain twice before)

 

Pretérito anterior Examples
Yo hube estado I had been NOTE: this conjugation is rarely used in everyday, real-life Spanish. It would make you sound awkward in a social situation.
Tú hubiste estado You had seen
Él hubo estado He has been
Nosotros hubimos estado We had been
Vosotros hubisteis / Ustedes hubieron estado You had been
Ellos hubieron estado They had been

 

Futuro perfecto Examples
Yo habré estado I will have been Cuando sean las seis, ya habré estado en camino (By six, I will have been on my way)
Tú habrás estado You will have been Para la próxima semana, ya habrás estado en dos ciudades de Chile (By next week, you will have been in two cities in Chile)
Él habrá estado He will have been Él habrá estado en su oficina dos veces para ese entonces (He will have been in his office twice by then)
Nosotros habremos estado We will have been Nosotros habremos estado de visita tres veces para entonces (We will have visited three times by then)
Vosotros habréis / Ustedes habrán estado You will have been Ustedes ya habrán estado aquí cuando él venga (You will have already been here when he comes)
Ellos habrán estado They will have been Ellas ya habrán estado en su dormitorio cuando llegue su prima (They will already have been in her bedroom when their cousin arrives)

 

Condicional perfecto Examples
Yo habría estado I would have been Yo habría estado fuera de aquí (I would have been out of here)
Tú habrías estado You would have been Tú habrías estado sola si no fuera por él (You would have been alone if it weren’t for him)
Él habría estado He would have been Él habría estado triste de no ser por ti (He would have been sad if it wasn’t for you)
Nosotros habríamos estado We would have been Nosotros habríamos estados preocupados si hubiese pasado algo (We would have been worried if something had happened)
Vosotros habríais / Ustedes habrían estado You would have been Ustedes habrían estado en peligro de no ser por la policía (You would have been in danger if it weren’t for the police)
Ellos habrían estado They would have been Ellos habrían estado en los EEUU si no hubiesen viajado (They would have been in the USA if they hadn’t traveled)

 

SUBJUNCTIVE MOOD

 

Presente Examples
(que) yo esté I am No creo que yo esté bien considerado ahí (I don’t think I am wel regarded there)
(que) tú estés You are Ojalá que tú estés mejor para esa fecha (I wish you are better by that time)
(que) él esté He is Deseo que él esté en mi fiesta de cumpleaños (I wish he is at my birthday party)
(que) nosotros estemos We are No creo que nosotros estemos listos (I don’t think we are ready)
(que) vosotros estéis / ustedes estén You are Ojalá que ustedes estén contentos (I wish you are happy)
(que) ellos estén They are Oremos para que ellos estén bien (Let’s pray they are OK)

 

Pretérito imperfecto / pretérito Examples
(que) yo estuviera o estuviese I were Si yo estuviera solo, me sacaría los zapatos (If I were alone, I’d take my shoes off)
(que) tú estuvieras o estuvieses You were Si tú estuvieras soltera, tendrías muchos pretendientes (If you were single, you would have many pretenders)
(que) él estuviera o estuviese He were Si ella estuviese en problemas, nos habría llamado (If she were in trouble, she would have called)
(que) nosotros estuviéramos o estuviésemos We were Si nosotros estuviéramos más preparados, pasaríamos la prueba fácilmente (If we were more prepared, we would pass the test easily)
(que) vosotros estuvierais o estuvieseis / ustedes estuvieran o estuviesen You were Si ustedes estuvieran despiertos a esa hora, podríamos juntarnos (If you were awake at that time, we could get together)
(que) ellos estuvieran o estuviesen They were Si ellas estuvieran en la ciudad, podríamos ir al cine (If they were in the city, we could go to the cinema)

 

Futuro simple / futuro Examples
(que) yo estuviere NOTE: this conjugation is rarely used in everyday, real-life Spanish. It would make you sound awkward in a social situation.
(que) tú estuvieres
(que) él estuviere
(que) nosotros estuviéremos
(que) vosotros estuviereis / ustedes estuvieren
(que) ellos estuvieren

 

Pretérito perfecto Examples
(que) yo haya estado I was No creo que yo haya estado en mi mejor momento (I don’t think I was at my prime)
(que) tú hayas estado You were Puede que tú hayas estado en esa fiesta (Maybe you were at that party)
(que) él haya estado He was No creo que ella haya estado hablando en serio (I don’t think she was talking seriously)
(que) nosotros hayamos estado We were No creo que nosotros hayamos estado pasándolo mal (I don’t think we were having a bad time)
(que) vosotros hayáis estado / ustedes hayan You were Puede que ustedes hayan estado un poco ebrios (Maybe you were a little drunk)
(que) ellos hayan estado They were Puede que ellos hayan estado bromeando (Maybe they were joking)

 

Pretérito pluscuamperfecto Examples
(que) yo hubiera / hubiese estado I had been Ojalá yo hubiera estado ahí para verte (I wish I had been there to see you)
(que) tú hubieras / hubieses estado You had been Ojalá tú hubieras estado en mi lugar (I wish you had been in place)
(que) él hubiera / hubiese estado He had been Ojalá que él hubiera estado en su trabajo más temprano (I wish he had been at work earlier)
(que) nosotros hubiéramos / hubiésemos estado We had been Ojalá que nosotros hubiéramos estado más comprometidos (I wish we had been more committed)
(que) vosotros hubierais o hubieseis / ustedes hubieran o hubiesen estado You had been Ojalá que ustedes hubieran estado en mejores condiciones (I wish you had been in better condition)
(que) ellos hubieran / hubiesen estado They had been Ojalá que ellas hubieran estado aquí antes (I wish they had been here earlier)

 

Futuro perfecto Examples
(que) yo hubiere estado NOTE: this conjugation is rarely used in everyday, real-life Spanish. It would make you sound awkward in a social situation.
(que) tú hubieres estado
(que) él hubiere estado
(que) nosotros hubiéremos estado
(que) vosotros hubiereis / ustedes hubieren estado
(que) ellos hubieren estado

 

IMPERATIVE MOOD

 

(Tú) está(te) Be ¡Estáte quieto, por favor! (Be still, please!)
(Ustedes) estad / estén Be Estén alertas (Be alert)

 

Conclusion

The verb “estar” is one of the meanings of the verb “to be” in Spanish. “To be” can be translated as “ser” or “estar”. The difference between “ser” and “estar” is that “ser” describes a permanent state of being, whereas “estar” describes a temporary state of being. Knowing how to conjugate this high frequency verb will help you take your Spanish to the next level.

 

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Business Spanish vocabulary | 100 key words and phrases

¡Hola, amigas y amigos de SpanishCompadres.com! Welcome to a new, amazing post. My name is Husim Espinoza and I am one of the founders of this blog. Apart from being a licensed language instructor, I also have a business degree from a public university in my home...

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Conjugate ser in Spanish | ALL conjugations

Conjugate ser in Spanish | ALL conjugations

¡Hola, amigas y amigos de SpanishCompadres.com! Welcome to a new article! The verb “ser” (to be, as in “to exist”) is one of the most frequent verbs in any language. Spanish is not an exception to this rule. For this reason, we have prepared a super post with ALL conjugations for the verb “ser” in all tenses in Spanish. We have also come up with example sentences for each conjugation, so you can practice vocabulary and pronunciation by reading them out loud.

The verb “to be” in Spanish can be translated as “ser” or “estar”, depending on the context. As a general distinction, the verb “ser” indicates a permanent state of being. For example, in the sentence “Mi esposa es feliz” (My wife is happy), the verb “es” (conjugated form of “ser”) indicates a permanent state, the fact that the subject is ALWAYS happy. 

The verb “estar” indicates a temporary state of being. For example, in the sentence “Mi esposa está feliz” (My wife is happy) the verb “está” (conjugated form of “estar”) indicates a temporary state, the fact that the subject is happy IN THIS MOMENT. Let’s check out all the conjugations of the verb “ser”.    

 

Table of contents

 

What does ser mean in Spanish?

As we explained in the introduction, “ser” is one of the meanings of the verb “to be” in Spanish. “To be” can be translated as “ser” or “estar”. The difference between “ser” and “estar” is that “ser” describes a permanent state of being (e.g. La joven es bonita / The young girl is pretty / The young girl ALWAYS looks pretty), whereas “estar” describes a temporary state of being (e.g. La joven está bonita / The young girl is pretty / The young girl looks pretty NOW). 

 

Verb SER conjugation

 

Non-conjugated forms

Infinitive ser
Gerund siendo
Participle sido

 

Indicative mood 

 

Indicative simple tenses

 

Presente   Examples
Yo soy I am Yo soy Juan (I am Juan)
Tú eres You are ¿Tú eres María? (Are you María?)
Él es He is Él es mi cuñado (He is my brother in law)
Nosotros somos We are Nosotros somos los dueños (We are the owners)
Vosotros sois You are Vosotros sois nuestros amigos (You are our friends)
Ellos son They are Ellas son mis hijas (They are my daughters)

 

Pretérito imperfecto   Examples
Yo era I was / used to be Yo era un buen estudiante (I was / used to be a good student)
Tú eras You were / used to be Tú no eras así antes (You were not / didn’t use to be like this before)
Él era He was / used to be Ella era la mejor de su clase (She was / used to be the best in her class)
Nosotros éramos We were / used to be Nosotros éramos amigos (We were / used to be friends)
Vosotros erais You were / used to be Vosotros erais del otro equipo (You were / used to be on the other team)
Ellos eran They were / used to be Ellas eran simpáticas (They were / used to be nice)

 

Pretérito perfecto simple   Examples
Yo fui I was Yo fui el que les contó (I was the one who told them)
Tú fuiste You were Tú fuiste el primero (You were the first one)
Él fue He was Ella fue la primera en llegar (She was the first to arrive)
Nosotros fuimos We were Nosotros no fuimos los culpables (We weren’t the guilty ones)
Vosotros fuisteis You were Vosotros fuistes sobresalientes esa vez (You were outstanding that time)
Ellos fueron They were Ellos fueron malos con nosotros (They were mean to us)

 

Futuro   Examples
Yo seré I will be Yo seré padre en Enero (I will be a father in January)
Tú serás You will be Tú serás mi padrino de boda (You will be my best man)
Él será He will be Él será un arquitecto (He will be an architect)
Nosotros seremos We will be Nosotros seremos amigos (We will be friends)
Vosotros seréis You will be Vosotros seréis nuestros huéspedes (You will be our guests)
Ellos serán They will be Ellas serán las protagonistas (They will be the protagonists)

 

Condicional   Examples
Yo sería I would be Yo sería mejor si entrenara más duro (I would be better if I trained harder)
Tú serías You would be Tú serías mi compañero si hubiésemos entrado a la misma universidad (You would be my classmate if we had entered the same university)
Él sería He would be Él sería más delgado si comiera menos (He would be thinner if he ate less)
Nosotros seríamos We would be Nosotros seríamos millonarios si trabajáramos más (We would be millionaire if we worked more)
Vosotros seríais You would be Vosotros serías más eficientes si hicierais esto (You would be more efficient if you did this)
Ellos serían They would be Ellos serían más energéticos si practicaran deportes (They would be more energetic if the practiced sports)

 

Indicative compound tenses

Pretérito perfecto compuesto   Examples
Yo he sido I have been Yo he sido tu amigo por años (I’ve been your friend for years)
Tú has sido You have been Tú has sido mejor de lo que esperaba (You’ve been better than I expected)
Él ha sido He has been Él ha sido nuestro mejor profesor hasta ahora (He has been our best teacher so far)
Nosotros hemos sido We have been Nosotros hemos sido padres estrictos (we have been strict parents)
Vosotros habéis sido You have been Vosotros habéis sido muy amables (You have been very kind)
Ellos han sido They have been Ellas han sido nuestras clientas por años (They have been our clients for years)

 

Pretérito pluscuamperfecto   Examples
Yo había sido I had been Antes de ser tu amigo, yo había sido tu mentor (Before I was your friend, I had been your mentor)
Tú habías sido You had seen Tú ya habías sido alertada cuando intenté llamarte (You had already been alerted when I tried to call you)
Él había sido He has been Él había sido una influencia para mí hasta que me enteré de lo que pasó (He had been an influencer for me until I found out what happened)
Nosotros habíamos sido We had been Cuando ustedes nos llamaron, nosotros ya habíamos sido invitados (When you called us, we had already been invited)
Vosotros habíais sido You had been Vosotros habías sido arrestados antes de esto (You had been arrested before this)
Ellos habían sido They had been Ellos habían sido los únicos campeones invictos hasta que el otro equipo ganó (They had been the only undefeated champions until the other team won)

 

Pretérito anterior   Examples
Yo hube sido I had been NOTE: this conjugation is rarely used in everyday, real-life Spanish. It would make you sound awkward in a social situation.
Tú hubiste sido You had seen
Él hubo sido He has been
Nosotros hubimos sido We had been
Vosotros hubisteis sido You had been
Ellos hubieron sido They had been

 

Futuro perfecto   Examples
Yo habré sido I will have been Si en dos años ganamos el campeonato, yo habré sido parte de ese triunfo. (If we win the championship in two years’ time, I will have been part of that triumph.
Tú habrás sido You will have been Para ese entonces, tú habrás sido muy exitosa (By then, you will have been very successful)
Él habrá sido He will have been Cuando suceda eso, él ya habrá sido desalojado (When that happens, he will have already been evicted)
Nosotros habremos sido We will have been Nosotros habremos sido notificados para ese entonces (We will have been notified by then)
Vosotros habréis sido You will have been Cuando la nueva era llegue, habréis sido preparados para triunfar en ella (When the new era arrives, you will have been prepared to succeed in it)
Ellos habrán sido They will have been Ellas habrán sido electas para esa fecha (They will have been elected by that time)

 

Condicional perfecto   Examples
Yo habría sido I would have been Si no hubiese estudiado leyes, yo habría sido actor (If I hadn’t studied law, I would have been an actor)
Tú habrías sido You would have been Tú habrías sido el candidato perfecto (You would have been the perfect candidate)
Él habría sido He would have been Ella habría sido feliz si hubiese estudiado en la universidad (She would have been happy if she had studied at the university)
Nosotros habríamos sido We would have been Nosotros no habríamos sido futbolistas si no hubiésemos entrenado desde niños (We wouldn’t have been footballers if we hadn’t trained since little)
Vosotros habríais sido You would have been Vosotros habríais sido mejores si os hubieseis preparado (You would have been better if you had prepared yourselves)
Ellos habrían sido They would have been Ellas habrían sido perjudicadas si no se hubiese conocido la verdad (They would have been affected if the truth hadn’t been known)

 

SUBJUNCTIVE MOOD

Subjunctive simple tenses

Presente   Examples
(que) yo sea I am Ojalá que yo sea el elegido (I wish I am the chosen one)
(que) tú seas You are Ojalá que tú seas capaz de hacerlo (I wish you are able to do it)
(que) él sea He is Ojalá que él sea recompensado (I wish he is rewarded)
(que) nosotros seamos We are Ojalá que nosotros seamos escuchados (I wish we are heard)
(que) vosotros seáis You are Ojalá que vosotros seáis bien recibidos (I wish you are welcomed)
(que) ellos sean They are Ojalá que ellas sean las ganadoras (I wish they are the winners)

 

Pretérito imperfecto / pretérito   Examples
(que) yo fuera o fuese I were Ojalá que yo fuera como él (I wish I were like him)
(que) tú fueras o fueses You were Esperaba que tú fueras diferente (I hoped you were different)
(que) él fuera o fuese He were Si él no fuese así, estaríamos mejor (If he weren’t like that, we would be better off)
(que) nosotros fuéramos o fuésemos We were Ojalá fuéramos más afortunados (I wish we were luckier)
(que) vosotros fuerais o fueseis You were Si fuerais más discretos, podríamos llevarnos mejor (If you were more discreet, we could get along better)
(que) ellos fueran o fuesen They were Si ellas fueran más relajadas, su trabajo no sería tan bueno (If they were more relaxed, their work wouldn’t be as good)

 

Futuro simple / futuro   Examples
(que) yo fuere   NOTE: this conjugation is rarely used in everyday, real-life Spanish. It would make you sound awkward in a social situation.
(que) tú fueres  
(que) él fuere  
(que) nosotros fuéremos  
(que) vosotros fuereis  
(que) ellos fueren  

 

Subjunctive compound tenses

Pretérito perfecto   Examples
(que) yo haya sido I was Espero que yo haya sido de tu agrado (I hope I was of your liking)
(que) tú hayas sido You were Es genial que tú hayas sido elegido (It’s great that you were elected)
(que) él haya sido He was Espero que él haya sido un buen niño (I hope he was a good boy)
(que) nosotros hayamos sido We were ¿Crees que nosotros hayamos sido lo suficientemente buenos? Do you think we were good enough?
(que) vosotros hayáis sido You were Espero que vosotros hayáis sido tratados como os merecéis (I wish you were treated as you deserve)
(que) ellos hayan sido They were ¿Crees que ellos hayan sido culpables? Do you think they were guilty?

 

Pretérito pluscuamperfecto   Examples
(que) yo hubiera / hubiese sido I had been Si yo hubiera sido más cuidadoso, esto no habría sucedido (If I had been more careful, this wouldn’t have happened)
(que) tú hubieras / hubieses sido You had been Si tú hubieras sido más atento, tu novia no te habría dejado (If you had been more attentive, your girlfriend wouldn’t have left you)
(que) él hubiera / hubiese sido He had been Él habría sido un abogado si hubiese sido más perserverante (He would have been a lawyer if he had been more persevering)
(que) nosotros hubiéramos / hubiésemos sido We had been Si nosotros hubiésemos sido hermanos, no nos habríamos llevado bien (If we had been brothers, we wouldn’t have gotten along)
(que) vosotros hubierais / hubieseis sido You had been Si vosotros hubiérais sido así desde el principio, no habría habido ningún problema (If you had been like this since the beginning, there wouldn’t have been any problems)
(que) ellos hubieran / hubiesen sido They had been Si ellos hubiesen sido más cuidadosos, estarían a salvo ahora (If they had been more careful, they would be safe now)

 

Futuro perfecto   Examples
(que) yo hubiere sido   NOTE: this conjugation is rarely used in everyday, real-life Spanish. It would make you sound awkward in a social situation.
(que) tú hubieres sido  
(que) él hubiere sido  
(que) nosotros hubiéremos sido  
(que) vosotros hubiereis sido  
(que) ellos hubieren sido  

 

IMPERATIVE MOOD

(Tú) sé Be Sé una buena niña (Be a good girl)
Usted (sea) Be Sea amable (Be nice)
Vosotros sed Be Sed obedientes con sus padres (Be obedient to your parents)
Ustedes sean Be Sean disciplinados (Be disciplined)

 

Conclusion

The verb “ser” is one of the meanings of the verb “to be” in Spanish. “To be” can be translated as “ser” or “estar”. The difference between “ser” and “estar” is that “ser” describes a permanent state of being, whereas “estar” describes a temporary state of being. Knowing how to conjugate this high frequency verb will help you take your Spanish to the next level.

 

Share this post!

Share this post with your friends by clicking any of the social buttons on the left side (computer) or at the bottom (mobile) of your screen. Help others improve their Spanish. ¡Comparte!

 

Resources

Business Spanish vocabulary | 100 key words and phrases

¡Hola, amigas y amigos de SpanishCompadres.com! Welcome to a new, amazing post. My name is Husim Espinoza and I am one of the founders of this blog. Apart from being a licensed language instructor, I also have a business degree from a public university in my home...

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¡Hola, amigas y amigos de SpanishCompadres.com! My name is Husim Espinoza and today I want to tell you what is, from my experience as a language learner and instructor, the best way to start learning Spanish. If you’re reading this post, you have started taking action...

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read more

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